108 Facts (Part 1)
General, November 3, 2020
Spherical Earth – Who knew it first?
Who had discovered that Earth is a sphere?
Our books teach us that it was Kepler, Copernicus, and Galileo. They all belong to 16th & 17th century AD. What was ancient India’s Knowledge in this regard? Don’t they know that earth was round? Yes, they do. Indians knew this fact for ages, even from ancient times.
Here are a few references to substantiate this fact…
The renowned Indian Astronomer Aryabhatta (476AD) had said
“Bhugolah sarvato vrttah” – the earth is round from all sides
(Aryabhattiyam, Golapada, sixth sloka)
Hee had also accurately calculated the diameter of the Earth.
(Aryabhattiyam, Chapter 1 – sloka five)
Another Indian Astronomer varahamihira (6th century AD) in his text “Pancha Sidhanthika” said as under
Panca mahabhutamayastraragana panjare mahilgolah
(“Pancha Sidhanthika” 13Ch-sloka1)
The “spherical” Earth that is made up of Pancha Bhuthas (five elements) is hanging in the space, studded by twinkling stars like an iron ball hanging in a cage.
Let us observe this Vedic mantra of Rigveda
Cakranasah parinaham prthivya (Rig veda1.33.8)
It says “people who reside on the surface of the Earth’s circumference.”
There are many Vedic verses; many of them proclaim the spherical shape of the Earth. Surya Sibhantha, an ancient Indian astronomical text reveals that
Madhye samantandasya bhugolo vyomni tisthati (12th Ch-32 sloka)
“In the midst of Universe (Brahmaanda), the spherical earth stands firm in the space.”
Bhaskaracharya (11th century AD), the famous Mathematician, in his book titled “Leelavathi”, answers a question posed by the little girl Leelavathi,
“Whatever your eyes see is not the reality. Earth is not flat is not flat as you see it. It is a sphere. If you draw a very big circle and look at the one fourth of its circumference, you see it as a straight line. But in true sense it is a circle. Similarly earth is spherical in shape.”
Aryabhattiyam the book written by Aryabhatta had been translated into Latin during 13th century. This book would hae influenced the Western Astronomers.
Aryabhatta had even explained in his book the reasons for eclipse
Chadayati sasi suryam sasinam mahati ca bhuchhaya
(Aryabhattiyam, Golapada, sloka 37)
“When moon shadows the Sun, solar eclipse occurs, when earth shadows the Moon, lunar eclipse occurs.”
He had also calculated the accurate occurrences of the eclipses; number of days Earth takes to revolve round the Sun (365 days six hours 12 minutes and 30 seconds) and number of hours that earth takes to revolve around itself (23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.1 seconds).
Even today in most of the indian languages the term “Geography” means BHUGOLA SASTRA. The very word “Bhugola” means spherical earth. This shows that ages ago Indians knew that earth was spherical in shape.
Then why do we teach our children in schools that Western scientists had found this great discovery about the shape of the Earth?
3. Many Apples had fallen before Newton’s Gravity Laws
Yes, many apples, especially many Indian apples had fallen down before Newton had discovered Laws of Gravitation. Ancient Indian Astronomical texts are replete with Gravitational laws. It is not fair to say that Newton had discovered them first without giving due recognition to great Indian Astronomers.
Surya Sidhantha, the classical Indian Astronomical text says “because of the dharanatmika sakti, Earth is standing firm in the space without falling away
madhye samantandasya bhugolo vvyomni tisthati
bibhranah paramam saktim brahmano dharanatmikkam
(Surya Sidhantha 12th chapter 32 sloka)
Varahamihira (6th century AD) had said “it is an experience of everyone that on any part of the earth, that the flames of the fire go up and the objects that were thrown up fall down
gaganamupaiti sikhisikha ksiptamapi ksitimupaiti guru kincit
yadvadiha manavvanam a suranam tadvvadevajghah
(Pancha Sidhanthi, 13th chapter 4th sloka)
Bhakaracharya (11th Century AD), the famous Indian mathematician in his text “Leelavathi” explains, “Earth has guruthvvakarsna sakti (Gravitational force). Due to mutual attraction between the planets, they (planets) are able to hold themselves firmly in space.
In his other text, “Siddhantha Shiromani,” Bhaskaracharya reveals that, “Earth naturally attracts every object in the space towards itself. Because of this attracting force, all objects fall on the earth. When there is balance in attraction among planets where would they fall?”
akrsta saktisca mahi taya yat svastham guru svabhimukham svasaktya
akrsyate tatpatativa bhati same samantat kva patatviyam khe
(Siddhantha Shiromani, Bhuvvanakosa, sixth sloka)
Brahmagupta (7th century AD), renowned Mathematician in his famous text “Brahma Sputa Siddhantha,” discloses “like water having natural downward flow, Earth also has similar attracation power, because of which all objects get attracted towards it.”
Jagad Guru Sri Adisankara in his commentary on Prasna Upanishad has said,” as earth attracts the up going (thrownup) objects, so do the ever elevating Pranasakti in the body, is being pulled down by the Apanasakti.
tatha prthivyamabhimanini ya deata prasidtha saisa
purusasya apana vvrttimaastabhya krsya vasakrityadha eva
apakarsena anugraham kurvvati vvartata ityarthah
anyatha hi sariram gurutvat patet savvakase odgacchet
(Commentary of Adi Sankara for 3Ch-8th sloka of Prasnopanishad)
Many India texts had similar references about Gravvity Laws. All these facts were revealed centuries before Newton.
4. Who goes around whom, Earth vs Sun?
Heliocentric theory of our solar system was first propounded by Copernicus in 1453. He propounded that the Sun is the centre of our universe and all the planets revolve around it. As it was against the views of the holy Bible, he had been persecuted. Afterwards in the year 1632 Galileo, supported this view and became a sinner in the eyes of Church.
But, Indian perception about our solar system is clearly stated in Vedas and other oriental Astronomical texts.
Ancient Vedic knowledge is very lucid in its expression about Sun being the centre of our Universe (Solar system).
Let us analyse few Vedic verses in the regard,
Mitro dadhara prthavimutadyam mitrah krstih (Rigveda 3.5.59+.1)
Sun, with his attracting force is holding this earth and the other celestial bodies.
Trinabhicakramajaramanarvvam yenema visvva bhuvvanani tasthuh (Rigveda 1.164.1)
All the celestial bodies (Planets) are moving in elliptical orbits.
Ayam gauh prsnirakramit asadanmataram purah pitaram ca prayantsvah (Rigvveda 10.189.1)
Moon being the sub planet of earth, is revolving around its motherly planet earth and earth is revolving around its fatherly planet sun.
Sun never sets or rises, (because of earth’s movements, it appears to us as sun rising in the east and setting in the west. (Rigveda-Aitareya Brahman)
Aryabhatta, had clearly explained this phenomenon with a logical principle called,
“Laghu-Guru Nyaya.” Laghu means small or light weighted object, Guru means big or heavy object. It implies that a small object revolves around a big object, like a disciple going around a Grur or Teacher.
He had also stated that Moon gets Light from the Sun and so shines. He is the first person to propound that each planet moves around itself and he had accurately calculated the time taken for Earth’s rotation around itself and Earth’s revolution around Sun.
In the Indian view, the Sun and the moon were also considered to be “Graham” (The meaning of the word should not be mistaken for Planet). “Graha” in Sanskrit means that which influences or which gets influenced.
Many Astronomical and Astrological calculations of various Indian Astronomers were based on the relatie positions of various celestial bodies. Hence these calculations should not be interpreted as “Earth centered universe”. There was a crystal clear clarity among Indians that Sun is the centre of Universe. The Vedas, and the above-referred Indian Astronomical texts, substantiate this fact.
(Source; Ancient Indian Science and its relevance to modern world P-27; Published by Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupathi)
5. Seven Colours of Sun Light
Seven colours mix together to become an intense blow of white rays of the Sun. Sir Isaac Newton: the renowned scientist of 16th century had been accredited with this Discovery. World believes this with all fanfare.
Ages before Newton, the ancient Indian Vedic knowledge had revealed that the sunlight consists of seven colours.
Sapta tva harito rathe vahanti deva surya sociksesam icaksana (Rigvveda 1.50.9)
Ava divastarayanti sapta suryasya rasmyah (Atharvaveda 17-10-17-1)
Sun’s seven coloured rays are making a day.
Does that mean sun has only seven rays? No, sun emits millions and millions of rays. But each ray of light has seven colours embedded in it. The Vedic terminology often refers to word “saptha asva ruda”. It actually means seven coloured white sunrays. The Vedic meaning of word “asva” also means “light rays”.
The Taittiriya aranyakam says “eko-asva vahati sapta namah” (Rigveda 1-164-2)
It means sun light is one (white) but called as seven, figuratively the above sloka can be expressed as sun being carried by one horse called with seven names.
Interestingly in Chandogya Upanishad there is a sloka (8-6-1), it says that sun’s ray has three colours; they are blue, yellow and red. Infact this is also true in the sense that three colours are the basic colours, which become other colours.
6. Measuring the speed of Light
Ancient Indians knew about the speed of light. In fact they calculated it accurately. But the Western world says that, “Romar” had first estimated it in the year 1675. To substantiate the Indian version, let us observe the sayanacarya’s commentary on Vedas, which was written in 14th century A.D.
Taranirvisvadarsato jyotiskrdasi surya visvama bhasi rocanam (Rigveda 1.50.4)
For the above Rig Vedic sloka-verse he had written an explanation, revealing the speed of sunlight.
Yojananam sahasram dve dve sate dve ca yojane
Ekena nimisardhena karma mana namostu te
It means that the sunlight travels 2202 yojanas in half nimisha. Here yojana means 9.11 miles. According to traditional Indian calculations in one full day (including night) there are 8,10,000 half minutes. That means for one second there are 8/75 half minutes.
Then the speed of light should be 2202 X 9.11 / (8/75) = 1,88,064 miles per second.
The above calculation is very close to the modern value estimated by the 20th century scientists’ Michealson and Morley i.e 1,86,300 miles per second. The above fact had been clearly mentioned in Maxmullar’s compilation of Rigveda, (1890), as he had taken Saayana Bhashya as authority for his work of translating Vedas. Maxmullar had referred to the manuscript of sayanacarya’s commentary (1395 AD) copy of which is now available in Baroda library for our reference.
Note: Yojana according to Arthasastra is equal to 9.11 miles, which is equal to 8000 dhanus. One Dhanu is equal to average man’s height that is six feet. But Indian Astronomers like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta had considered one yojana as equal to four krosas, which is equal to five miles. Thank God, they have defined their unit of measurements in their works.
7. Scaling the Eternal Time
As the Time flies eternally, events fly with it and get absorbed in it. Every moment of this eternal time remains precious and puzzles us in every way. The Western world had tried to scale the time in many ways and times (occasions), but stumbled, faltered and corrected their calendars quite often.
Even, ancient Indians measured the time; their methods of measurement varied, but their calculations remained precise, systematic and accurate. From smallest unit of time “liptha” to the largest unit of time ‘Yugas” and ‘kalpas”, our ancestors had calculated and measured the time with all aptness and skill.
In the Western concepts of time, only the measure of year had been logically deduced; other units of time like day, week, month etc, are not precisely determined. Indians measured the time by relatively determining the movement of celestial objects, like planets, stars against the Earth’s motion and thus evolved the unit of measurements of time. Based on celestial movements of sun and moon, Indians had invented additional measures like “Adhika masa” (additional months) for making adjustments and for maintaining accuracy.
Day or Divas:
Earth is moving around itself at the speed of 1600kms per hour. At this speed, to revolve around itself, it takes 24 hours. In this rotation, 12 hours is considered as day and remaining 12 hours is considered as night.
According to Indian measurement of time, one full day consists of 24 “horo”s. This Sanskrit word “horo” has become “hour” in English. This 24 horo period or period is being called as day or pruthvi divas.
Earth revolves around the sun at the speed of one lakh kms per hour. One-degree movement of earth around sun had been considered as a solar day or surya divas. Moon reolves around the earth (27.3 Earth Days). Twelve-degree movement of moon in its orbit around the earth is called as lunar day or tithi or Chandra divas.
Week or VVaara:
Throughout the world, the week is considered as a seven-day period. This had been adopted from Indian mode of measurement. The planetary names of the days had been adopted from India. The moon is considered to be the nearest celestial object to the earth and Saturn is the far-off planet (graham) according to Indian perspective. The sequence of planets from the earth is Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Sun, Jupiter and Saturn.
During a 24-horo period or 24-hour period, each of the seven planets becomes the lord (influences most, vibrations effect more) for a period of one hour. One after another, each of the seven planets dominates for a period of one hour. Once the cycle of 24 hours gets completed, the second day starts with the continuing sequence of planetary dominance of first hour. The second day had been named after the planet, which gains the lordship in a sequence after the completion of 24-horo period or 24-horo period.
For example, Sunday or Adivvar had been named after Sun (Sun and moon are also grahas according to Indian school of thought) because it occupies the first hour of the 24-horo or 24-hour period. Monday or Somavar had been named after Moon because it occupies the first hour of 24-horo or 24-hour period after the completion of first day. The sequence follows.
Forthnight & Month or Paksha & Masa:
During the day of Amavasya, the moon shall be at the centre in between the Earth and the Sun. This straight-line position is taken as zero degrees. The moon’s movement of 12 degrees from that position is considered as tithi or a day. During the period of such fifteen lunar days, the moon completes 180 degrees. This period is called Sukla Paksha and the fifteenth day is Poornima. The remaining 15-day period of Moon’s motion is called Krishna Paksha, which ends with Amavasya. The two Pakshas or two fifteen day periods together become a lunar month or masa of 30 day period. Two months become one season or Ruthu and twelve months become one full year.
Our ancestors had identified 27 stellar constellations (Nakshatra Mandal) in the space and each of them had been classified into four parts or Padas. These 108 padas are divided in groups of Nine. So there are 12 such groups called Rasis or Zodiac signs. They are Meena Rasi, Mesha Rasi, Vrishabha Rasi, Kanya Rasi etc. Based on these Rasis the solar months have come into existence.
Lunar months that are in vogue are formed based on twelve stellar constellations. These stellar constellations are visible throughout the night sky, starting from dusk to dawn. Each month is named after a star that is visible throughout the night sky during that month. The following table indicates the visibility of the star throughout the night and respective name of each month derived from it.
Month-Star Month-Star Month-Star
Chitram-chitra Sravanam-Sravanam Margasira-Mrigasira
Vaisaka-Visaka Badrapada-Purvabhadra Pushya-Pushya
Jyestham-Jyesta Asvayuja-Aswini Maagha-Magha
Ashadham-Ashada Karthika-Krithika Phalguna-Phalguni
Earth is slanting by 23½ degrees towards north-west. Sun’s rays fall perpendicularly on both sides of the equator by the 23½ degrees between north-south directions.
The line transcending 23½ degrees from north of equator is called Karkataka Rekha; the line transcending 23½ degrees from south of equator is called Makara Rekha.
The six-month period of travel of Sun’s Rays from Makara Rekha to Karkataka Reka is called Uttarayana and the viceversa is called Dakshinayana. The point of transition is called Sankranti. There would be two sankrantis in a year.
Sun travels at a speed of one lakh kmph, the distance of 96,60,00,000 kms in 365 days. This period of travel is called a year.
Once in 4,32,000 years all thee seven planets group together.
The span of 4,32,000 years had been considered as Yuga. Period of Kali Yuga is 4,32,000 years.
Span of two Kali Yugas is one Dwapara Yuga.
Span of three Kali Yugas is one Treta Yuga.
Span of four Kali Yugas is one Satya Yuga.
The period of four yugas is one Chatru Yuga or Maha Yuga. It is a period of 43,20,000 years.
72 such Maha Yugas are equal to one Manvantaram.
14 such Manvantarams are equal to one bright day of Brahma (excluding night) means 1000 Maha yugas, i.e 432,00,00,000 years. This is called one kalpa. One full day of Brahma i.e (bright day + night) is equal to 864 crore years. Brahma has such 365 days as one year and one hundred years of life span. One life span of Brahma is equal to one day of Vishnu. The cosmic age is equal to Brahma’s life span.
Let us analyse how wonderfully the knowledge of time had been intermingled in the daily rituals of Indians. The Sankalpa of Hindus goes as under by which, Second October 2006 had been explained, herewith,
“By the order of Sri Maha Vishnu, I take this resolve and make prayer, as on Brahma’s 51 year, (Dwithiya parardhay) of Sweta Varaha kalpay (kalpa is one day for Brahma), which is in the ruling period of Vaivaswata Manu during the first part of Kali Yuga, in Jwambu Dwipa, in Bharata Varsha, in Bharata khanda, in the southern side of meru mountains, towards the north eastern side of srisailam ranges, in the land embedded between Krishna and Cauvery rivers, at my, residing house, in presence of all deities, Brahmanas, Gurus and family members, by following the lunar measurement of time, in the year named “vyaya” during the southern part of six months (Dakshinayanam), in the Sarad Ruthu (season), Aswyayuja masa (lunar month) during the receding fornight of moon (krishnapakshay) on the Tenth day of fortnight (Dasami tithi), Monday (Somavara), Uttarashada (stellar constellation) and let all the Subha yogas and Subha karanas be bestowed during this auspisicious time as I perform my actions.”
Are we not struck with awe, as we look at the above sankalpa, wherein we find a perfect blend of time & space to reveal an identity of an event. Our seers had wonderful knowledge of time and the way it had been intermingled in the daily rituals clearly proves beyond doubt about their ingeniousness, their systematically perfected outlook and scientifically evolved perspective. The above example, confirms the fact that Indians considered Time & space as relative to each other.
8. Jantar – Mantar, a place for monitoring Heavens
At least in the field of ancient Indian Astronomy, we are left with certain classical Astronomical texts. Thanks, to the efforts of ancient Indian Astronomers.
Aryabhattiyam, siddhanta-siromani, Bhrhat-samhita, Surya-siddhanta Brahmasputa-siddhanta, sisyadhivridhida, etc are the texts that stand today as credentials of advanced Astronomical Knowledge of Inda.
The facts and concepts that were discussed in these books are in tune with modern Astronomical findings and at many instances they excel the present day knowledge.
To perceive astronomical facts, one requires certain special instruments. What were the instruments that were used by ancient Indian Astronomers? If they had used instruments, what happened to them today? Do they exist today? If they had disappeared with the elapse of Time, do we, at least have suitable references about their usage?
Most of the Indian Astronomical Instruments might have been destroyed during various foreign invasions on India. Today, we get the glimpses of their usage from the ancient astronomical texts. For example, Aryabhatta, the renowned Astronomer lived near Kusumapura during Fifth century AD. He was monitoring heavens from an observatory called “Khagola” kha means space, gola means spherical instrument. Some believe that Indian astronomy got its name khagola-sastra from the observatory of Aryabhatta.
Lalla, a famous Astronomer wrote a text called “sisyadhivridhida”. In that text he explains twelve kinds of astronomical instruments called yantras. They are
- Gola yantra (2) Bhagan yantra (3) Chakra yantra (4) Dhanus yantra (5) Gatiyantra (6) Sanku yantra (7) Shataka yantra (8) Karthari yantra (9) Pita yantra (10) Kapala yantra (11) Shalaka yantra (12) Yasthi yantra.
Bhaskaracharya’s text ciddhanta-ciromaei describes about Nadivalaya yantra and other yantras, which were used to calculate planetary motions and determine time.
In recent times, the person who had revived the lost knowledge about our Indian Astronomy and reconstructed the Astronomical yantras or instruments was none other than the Raja of Jaipur, Sawai Jaisingh-II.
Raja Jaisingh was a vassal king of Moghul Empire. During 1724-1727, he established Astronomical observatories called, “Jantar-Mantar” and hoisted the Flag of Indian talent. He founded them in five cites namely Delhi, Jaipur, Mathura, Ujjain and Varanasi. Among them except Mathura all the remaining four observatories exist today.
These observatories exhibit not only astronomical excellence but also architectural splendor and Engineering Ingenuity. The Sundial of Jaipur is the biggest exisisting Sundial of the world today. It observes various movements of Sun and the angles of other celestial obects.
“Sasthamsa yantra” can easily calculate the diameter of sun “Jayaprakash yantra” can study the nightsky and stars. “Kapala yantra” a bowl shaped instrument had been used to determine the latitudes and longitude and thus enabled astronomers to depict the picture of celestial space. “Ramayantra” had been constructed in cylindrical shape to record the movements of Astronomical objects.
A few modern historians are of the view, that Jaisingh was influenced by Arabic and Persian Astronomy. But the instruments that were built by Jaisingh in his observatories had been mentioned in ancient Indian astronomical texts. Alburni, the Arab historian says, Indian Astronomy, Chemistry, Mathematics and Medicine influenced Arabia and Persia in many ways.
A train of light rarely appears in the sky. It is called as “Dhuma-ketu” by ancient Indians. Today we call it, Comet. The word “Comet” in Latin means the one that has long hairs. The Western world never had knowledge about these comets till Edmond Halley in the year 1759 pioneered the study about the comets. He propounded that once in 95 years, these comets visit us. One of the comets had been named after Halley.
The ancient Indian Astronomical texts dealt with the knowledge of comets very extensively. They are (1) Bhrhat vimana sastra written by Bharadwaj (2) Agastya’s sakti tantra (3) Jaimini’s keta sarvasva
In “Vimana Sastra” in the chapter “Kriya Sara Tantra” we find mention of Dhuma-ketus. It had been mentioned in that text, that there are 3,07,30,221 Comets in the space. Among them around eight thousand of them are powered with electrical currents. Twelve of them are very fierce, powerful and dangerous.
In Agastya’s sakti tantra, the names of Twelve Comets are given. It had been mentioned that during rainy season the potency of comets would be very high.
Vimana Sastra says that the Comets are formed because of Sun burning certain objects in it’s vicinity; please do not forget the word “Dhuma” in Sanskrit means smoke or gases. The modern knowledge about the comets also concurs with that. Modern science explains that because of the proximity of certain celestial objects to the sun, the gases in them get combusted and become a stream, which appears as a tail or train of Light.
Medical Talents – Arogya Pratibha
10. Pioneering the Surgery – World’s First Surgeons
Ayurveda is the treasure house of Indian medical knowledge & Surgery. It is worshipped as Upaveda to Rigveda and in Atharvaveda many verses deals with the Ayurvedic knowledge.
This “knowledge-chest” is a gift to world from the great seers of yore like Bharadwaj, Atreya, Agnikaya, Charaka, Dhanuvantari, Sushruta and many others. In fact, it is an eternal gift of India to the world.
In Rigveda the verses (1.116.14&15), mention that, a woman warrior called “Vischala” the queen of king Khela, had been fitted with an artificial Iron leg by the Ashwini physicians, when she lost her leg in a war. These physicians were adored for eye transplantation in the next verse.
Indians pioneered surgery ages ago, Sushruta (500B.C) was the World’s earliest Surgeon. He learnt the skills of surgery from Dhanvantari (considered to be God Vishnu) and wrote a treatise on surgery and Ayurveda called “Sushruta Samhita” which had stood the test of time and is even now being followed.
In his text he had divided the methods of surgery into eight parts
- Chedya – cutting
- Lekhya – separating
- Vedhya – removing the toxic objects from the body.
- Ishya – probing the blood capillaries for finding the cause of disease.
- Aharya kriya – eliminating the production of harmful elements in the body.
- Visradavya – removing water from the body
- Civya – suturing
- Bedhya kriya – making holes and performing surgery
We find the mention of advanced level of surgery, the plastic surgery mostly Rhenoplastrary in Sushruta Samhita. These surgeries were performed to reconstruct the noses and ears. He performed many eye surgeries. There are many references about Caesarean operations. Indians not only performed surgeries, but also studied the human Anatomy by dissecting dead bodies. In Sushruta Samhita, we find many methods of preserving dead bodies for dissection. Sushruta had mentioned about 125 surgical instruments in his treatise.
In Bhoja Prabandha (927 AD), it had been mentioned that king Bhoja had undergone a surgical treatment, for getting a tumor removed from the brain. King had been administered Anesthesia called “Sammohini” while the surgery was being performed.
Gauthama Buddha’s physician called Devaka had performed many surgeries. Buddhistic texts mention about them. “Vinaya Pitika” a buddhistic text reveals that germs in the brain were removed by performing a surgery.
Ayurvedic knowledge adopts surgery as a last measure in treatment, but it focuses mostly on prevention than cure. It laid strees on bio-medical remedies though aware of chemical pharmacology and surgical interventions. All the books like “Charaka Samhita”, “Astanga Hridaya”, and “Bhavaprakasa” including “Sushruta Samhita” mention about medicinal plants. Today, Western world had understood its potentiality and has become crazy after medicinal plants. Madhava’s “Nidana Sastra” contains diagnosis of various diseases by observing human gestures and smells that emit from the body.
11. Ayurveda – A Therapeutical Treasure
Knowledge of Ayurveda had descended from Lord Brahma to Prajapati, from Prajapati to Ashwini kumars, from them to Indra from Indra to Bharadwaj, from him to Atreya, and to his disciples Agnivesha, Khela, Harita and others. Over a period of time it got divided into two schools of thought 1. Atreya Parampara 2. Dhanvantari Parampara.
In Atreya parampara, kaya-chikitsa (medicine/bodily treatment) is given prime importance. The famous text of this school of thought is Charaka Samhita, named after the famous physician, Charaka.
In Dhanvantari parampara salya-chikitsa (Surgery) also had been dealt with. In the line of surgery Sushruta is considered to be an authority and the famous tretise is Sushruta Samhita, written by him.
Apart from the above two schools of thought, Siddha medicine founded by sage Agastya is famous, even today in South India. In the yogic text Yoga Vashishta, it has been said that diseases first orginate in mental plane, slowly descend to pranic plane and then affect various nerves, arteries and veins, which in turn result in the bodily aliments etc.
Indian medical science had linked human thoughts to human health and evolved the therapeutical knowledge are ago; the purer and positive the thoughts, the better the health.
Today, modern medicine is slowly accepting the psychosomatic reasons for the advent of diseases. For this reason Yoga, Ayurveda and Naturopathy are becoming popular as alternative medicine to Allopathy. Our seers who had bequeathed us this knowledge had to be thanked, adored and worshipped.
Charaka Samhita, talks about a healthy person in the following lines
samadosah samagnisca samadhatu malakriyah
prasannatmendriya manah svastha ityabhidhiyate
In whom there is a balance of three dosha like vata, kapha se ven dhathus like lymph, blood, flesh, fatty tissue, bone, bonemarrow and semen and malakriya (proper balance excretion of fasces, urine and sweat) and who has self control of sense organs and mind, such a person has been defined as healthy person.
Even from Vedic times the knowledge of Ayurveda had been divided into eight parts
- Kaya chikitsa – General medicine & therapeutics
- Kaumara bhritya – Paediatrics & obstetrics
- Shalya tantra – Surgery
- Shalakyatantra – ENT, ophthalmology
- Bhutavidya-Psychiatary & Para psychic studies
- Vishatantra – Toxicology
- Rasayana – Rejuvenation therapy
- Vajikarana – Virilification therapy
“Nature is bestowed with suitable and necessary medicines for all kind of diseases says Charaka. In his Charaka Samhita around 582 kinds of medicinal plants have been mentioned. Similarly in Sushruta Samhita around 496 medicinal plants have been described. From them many medicinal preparations like powders, tonics and distillations are prepared.
Alchemy & Medicine:
Acharya Nagarjuna and Vagbatta had used many chemical preparations including metals and alloys as medicines. Many of the Alchemy’s methods were adopted by Arabs and from the Europeans.
Panchakarma treatment: (Methods of Internal Cleaning):
Charaka Samhita – sutrasthana (chapter 16-verses 17-21) describes about Pancha karma treatment. The concept of Pancha karma is to keep the stomach clean from toxicities and impurities (Tridoshas). If the stomach (the internal furnace within the body for all metabolic reactions) is clean, the person would be free from many kinds of diseases.
- Vaman – Emesis (through vomiting doshas are cured)
- Viraychanam – Purgation
- Basti – enema
- Nasya administrating medicines through nose
- Raktamokshan – Bloodletting
After Panchakarma treatment, the sense organs work efficiently. Colour of the skin becomes bright. Person obtains enough strength and would not appear aged. In Raktamoksha therapy usage of leeches is popular. Today it is being called as Leech therapy. Sushruta Samhita “Sutrasthana” (13 & 19 paras) clearly describes the usage of leeches in the therapy. Kudos! To knowledge that has used mother’s milk for therapeutical usage in 70 diseases. For example it is said, that milk of women of black colour can cure many eye diseases.
Famous Ayurvedic Texts Available today:
- Rig veda & Atharva veda
- Charaka Samhita (600 BC)
- Sushruta Samhita (1200AD)
- Ashtanga Hridaya (vagbhatta-600AD)
- Sarangadhara Samhita (1200AD)
- Bhava Prakashaka (1600AD)
- Madhava’s Nidana sastra (700AD)
12. Hridayam – for Healthy Heart Beats
William Harvay, (1628AD) a British scientist, had found that heart is essential for blood circulation, but could not describe how blood reaches the heart and flows from it. In the year 1669 a scientist named Marcello Malphigi clearly described how blood flows into Heart and comes out of it.
Now, let us hear the echoes of ancient Indian heartbeats and its hearty revelations. Satapatha Brahmana of Yajur Veda, had defined Hridayam (the heart) as under,
“Hru” means “harinay” (that receives)
“Da” means “daanay” (that gives)
“Ya” means “enngathow” (that circulates)
That which receives (blood), gives and circulates is called Hridayam.
Niruktha sastra had defined Hridayam as follows
Kapha pittavaruddhastu maruto rasa murcitah
Hrdisthah kurute sulam uccvasarodhakam param
“Heart diseases are caused because of “kapha” and “Pita” doshas (defects) and thus thickening and narrowing of coronary arteries resulting in acute pain in the Chest and difficulty in breathing.”
Tanmahatta mahamulah taccaujah pariraksata
Pariharya visesena manaso duhkhahetavah (Charaka Samhita Sutrasthanam 30/13)
Hrdyam yat syadyadaujasyam stotasam yat prasadanam
Tattat sevyam prayatnena prasamo jnanameva ca
(Charaka Samhita Sutrasthanam 30/14)
“Those who want to preserve “Ojas” and maintain heart in good condition should be away from mental worries and should exhibit self-restraint in diet and should consume the medicines that increase vital principles (ojas) and blood circulation. For healthy Heartbeats, meticulous efforts are to be made to obtain tranquility with awareness & wisdom.
Indian traditional medical knowledge had rightly recognized the preventive measures for the Heart diseases ages ago and advised suitably to exercise self-restraint and adopt moderate food habits and a composed mindset. If these suggestions are followed today, one can avoid heart surgeries and expenditure.
The Rasa is the energy produced from well-digested food. It is stored in the Heart. From the heart entering through the 24 arteries, 10 going upward 10 going downward and four horizontal, it satisfies, grows and maintains the entire body every day by an invisible force or cause. Blood is carried from heart to the entire body through them. (Ref: Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthanam, adhyayah 14 para-3)
It has been mentioned in the book, “Nighantu Ratnakara, that “vrinda” medicinal plant Terminalia Arjuna (Arjuna tree) is used to cure heart diseases.
13. Test Tubes Babies
In the year 1978-80, modern medical knowledge had claimed that it had achieved a miracle in the history of human race. Female ovum and male semen had been fertilized in a test tube and was transferred into uterus. Thus, the first test tube baby was born.
Is this for the first time in the history of mankind such miracles have happened? No, ages ago, many such instances had occurred on Indian soil.
Let us first refer to Rig Veda; Sage Agastaya’s birth is not from the mother’s womb. He had been fertilized in a pot. (Refer Rig Veda 7.33.13)
In Mahabharata, there are a few instances of childbirth similar to today’s test tube babies,
Let us look into the episode of Drona, the guru of Pandavas and kauravas. He was said to have been born only from the semen of male, without the female ovum in a vessel called “Droni” under the technical guidance and supervision of sage Bharadwaj. Hence he had become famous by the name Dronacharya.
King Drupada had performed a yagna to bring forth Draupadi and her brother Drushtadyumna. The methodology referred therein, resembles the cloning concepts of today.
Sage Gautama had created twins Kripa and Kripi by using certain vessels rather instruments. Hence they became famous by those names resemling the shape of the vessels.
We are all aware of the famous episode of the birth of Kauravas. When kaurara Queen Gandhari had undergone self-abortion, sage Vyasa collected the foetus and preserved it in one hundred pots and thus could produce 100 Kaurava Brothers and one sister Dussala.
All these frequent references are not figs of imagination, but were the instances of the then prevailing knowledge about the birth of babies, that are not from the mother’s womb.
14. Benefiting from the Cow
On June 2003, American patent office had given patent to “Go-Muthram” (cow-urine) as an antibiotic in curing diseases like tuberculosis and cancer. This product had been patented by Nagpur NGO “Go-vignana Ansundhana kendram”.
This news had created sensation among medical community worldwide and debate, discussion and research got initiated in many medical universities throughout the world. Today a new science called “Cowpathy” is evolving.
Ancient Indians had indepth knowledge of “Panchagavya chikitsa” including cow urine therapy. But, for centuries modern medicine had considered the cow urine therapy as a primitive practice of blind beliefs. Medical fraternity had woken up recently to the reality and started recognizing the potential therapeutic value of Cow products.
Indians worship cow as holy mother. Indian Cow is respected as the embodiment of all divine forces. Gifting a cow is considered to be the greatest of all charities. During the performance of yagnas and yagas, Cow & Cow products are very essential. Indian culture has placed cow in the sacred position of “Kamadhenu” (the wish fulfilling holy Diety). Vedas, Puranas and Itihasas, all adore the sanctity and utility of cow in many ways. Holy cow and Indian life have a sacred bondage. Rigveda says that killing a cow is the greatest of all crimes.
In the Mahabharata, Anushasanaparva, Bhishma reveals about the greatness of Gowmati yaga and holy cow’s importance. He further says, If anyone studies (any kind of subject) by staying near a cow, one grasps the essence of that study in no time, as cow always emits positive vibrations which keep the mind in a composed state.
In modern times, the first Indian war of Independence (Sepoy mutiny) in the year 1857 had its roots in the sacrilege made to Cow.
In India, Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras all worship and benefit from the cow in many ways. From giving milk, ploughing fields, performing yagnas and up to curing many diseases, Cow helps Indians; Cow protects them and nourishes them in every way. Lord Krishna being a cowherd is dear to millions and millions of devoted hearts.
In preparation of Ayurvedic medicines, the Pancha Gavyas (Five cow products) are used very extensively. The Panchagavyas are (1) Cow Milk (2) Curd (3) Ghee (4) Urine (5) Cow Dung.
In the famous Ayurvedic texts like Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbatta Samhitas, Pancha Gavyas are used to cure skin diseases, urinary problems, knee joint pains and ulcers.
In Indian agriculture, Cow’s role can never be de-linked or belittled. Cow dung is natural manure, being used by Indians since ancient times. Cow urine and neem leaves are mixed together and used as a pesticide. Many NGOs are working in furtherance of research in this regard.
Treatment with Pancha Gavyas had obtained prominence and importance after WHO started recognizing the traditional health remedies worldwide. In America and Africa, Pancha gavya is being used and tested for curing AIDS and clinical results seem to be encouraging.
Modern medicine is accepting these cow products as anti-biotics and bio-enhancers.
Normally environmentalists raise their voice about adverse green effects and pollution of burning firewood. Interestingly, the fire obtained by burning cowdung cakes had cleaned the atmosphere instead of polluting it. The holy process of Agnihotra is becoming popular throughout the world for its miraculous cleaning effects.
When Bhopal gas tragedy struck, a household, where there was regular practice of the ritual of agnihotra, was not affected, where as the neighboring households had to run amuck in fear of poisonous hazards that the gas leak had created. The research findings point to the Agnihotra Fire, which was created by burning cowdung cakes. That fire had protected that small family by cleaning the atmosphere that night.
It is our duty to protect Cow. Today, many Go-rakshana samitis had been formed at many places to protect cows. In these cow-protection movements Gujaratis, Marwaris and some voluntary & spititual organizations had taken a lead role and are doing their best to spread the awareness.
Indian agriculture and Indian lifestyle are intimately linked to the cow.
As we protect the cow, so does the cow protect us.
15. Tulasi – The Wonder Herb
Tulasi remeeds us from all sins. Tulasi provides us with all the wealth. Tulasi and Indian families have sym-biotic relationship. A house without Tulasi plant is like a temple without deity.
Since ancient times in every Indian household, Tulasi occupies a prominent place. Every backyard of the Indian house is adorned with Tulasi Fort. (Structure that is build around tulasi). Indians believe Tulasi as an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi. Indians worship the hold Basil (Tulasi) every day at a prescribed time.
There are many varieties of Tulasi. The popularly adopted Tulasi plants are (1) Krishna Tulasi (2) Rama Tulasi (3) Lakshmi Tulasi.
Krishna Tulasi is widely used in preparing medicines. Tulasi and pepper powder are used to cure malarial fever. Tulasi and Ginger are made into juice and are used to alleviate the knee joint pains.
Vomitings can be avoided by consuming curd or honey mixed with Tulasi seeds.
For curing Asthmatic problems, the essence of Krishna tulasi leaf and black pepper combination works wonders.
For skin disorders, paste made of Tulasi and Lemon can be applied externally.
For soar throat, water is boiled along with Tulasi leaves and is consumed. Tulasi rasa reduces Kapha dosha and re-energizes the body.
- It reduces glucose leavels and is being used to cure Diabetics.
- It reduces cholestral levels
- As a Cox-2 Inhibitor, it is being used as a pain reliever in cancer treatment
- To store food grains
Certain Vishnu devotees do not use Tulasi as a medicinal herb and consider it as a sacred plant. They consume Tulasi water (Tirtha) for purification of sins.
Tulasi beeds are used in Japa and Meditation. Garlands of fresh Tulasi leaves are offered to deities in temples every day. In Hindu temples, holy Tulasi water is given to devotees as Tirtha.
Tulasi is worshipped as the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi.
During the month of Kartika, Tulasi Vivaha (Wedding of Tulasi) is grandly celebrated. Hindus consider that day as a very auspicious day.
In Agastya Samhita it is said that, by planting Tulasi, watering Tulasi, worshipping Tulasi, rather touching Tulasi, one obtains moksha, the enlightenment.
Hindus believe that Tulasi plant contains all the holy rivers, all the Vedas and all the deities. Persons on the deathbed are watered with “Tulasi Tirtha” by poruing a few drops into the mouth. It is believed that, Tulasi purifies them from sins and gives them better positions (circumstances) in the next life.
Tulasi, the holy plant, the wonder herb, the sin redeemer is always with us from our birth to death, as an eternal companion.
16. Long drawn battles for Turmeric and Neem
Beware! Applying Turmeric paste on the wounds is a Punishable offence. If one gets Chickenpox and Measles, then to use Neem products in their treatment, we require permission from multinational companies. Otherwise one has to face court cases.
This is the situation, we Indians are forced into. A few European and American based multi-national companies claim that they own the knowledge about Turmeric and Neem as medicinal products, as they have patented them.
During the decade (1995-2005), Indian voluntary organizations, Indian Governmental institutions and a few intellectuals of Indian origin had waged fierce intellectual battles with US patent offices and multi-national companies.
It became a Herculean task to convince them that usage of Neem and Turmeric as medicinal herbs is known to Indians since ancient times and had been mentioned extensively in Ayurvedic texts. Not only Neem & Turmeric but also Lemon, Gauva, Amla and many such Ayurvedic medicines are being subjected to similar destiny.
Once we (Indians) were ridiculed, belittled and disparaged as charm healers of blind faith for using Neem leaves and Turmeric. Today after understanding their potential medicinal value, these Western companies, patent them and bar us from them. Does it not appear foul, funny, visicous, scornful, brutal and deceitful?
Before getting dragged into this controversy, let us understand the greatness of these wonder drugs.
In every Indian village, in front of every household, there appears a neem tree. Cattle are sheltered under its shade. During summer nights, people sleep under the Neem’s breezy shade. Even today 50% of Indians use Neem sticks as toothbrush. Neem paste is applied over body while taking bath. Preparing toilet soap from Neem oil & Neem seeds is known to Indians for ages. Vaginal application of neem oil by the women prevents pregnancy. Indian monks use Neem as a medicine to subside their carnal passions. Neem oil is used for lighting lamps. Lamps lit by Neem oil act as good Mosquito repellents.
The traditional agricultural text “Upavanavinodi” had elucidated the usage of neem in agriculture. It has been described as an effective pesticide. The text mentions the names of about 200 insects that neem can effectively eliminate. Every part of neem tree, enhances the fertility of the soil multifold.
In Ayurvedic classical texts like Charaka & Sushruta Samhita, Neem’s medicinal value had been greatly described. During the last 50 years many Indian voluntary organizations, Ayurvedic experts had done extensive research and had enhanced the knowledge of Neem’s medicinal, cosmetic and pesticidal usage and value.
Efforts of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Malarial Research Institute, Tata Energy Research Centre, and Khadi Gramodyog are laudable.
Now let us get into patent battle and see what exactly had happened,
1995-European patent office in Munish had given patent to American Agricultural Institute and to a company called W.R. Grace for usage of Neem.
2000-India raises objection against this patent right. After effective legal battles, the patent had been revoked by a court order. The role of Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva in this crusade is admirable.
2001-Multinational company W.R. Grace opted for an appeal to cancel the revocation.
2005 – Appeal was set-aside by declaring Neem as traditional medicine since many people know the knowledge of its usage. Finally the Patent that was issued had been cancelled.
Traditional Indian women’s beautiful face shines brightly with Turmeric’s luster. Without applying Turmeric paste to face, hands and legs, Indian women never take bath. This is applied just not only to beautify the skin, but also used as medicinal protection and for auspiciousness.
Kumkum or Red Tilak that adorns the face of every Hindu is made by powdering Turmeric and drying it after mixing it with Lime. The yogic spot on the fore head is protected with this kumkum and considered sacred by Indian women.
Every Indian threshold shines brightly with Turmeric paste and Kumkum, a product obtained from Turmeric.
Turmeric is used in Indian rituals and worship. Turmeric is used in cooking, not just for adding colour but also for preparing a healthy dish.
In many of the Indian household it is a practice to consume Turmeric along with milk for effective control of cough, cold and soarthroat. Turmeric vapours are inhaled to clear Phlem in the lungs.
Turmeric is used very extensively for dying the clothes. Many Ayurvedic medicines are prepared by using Turmeric as an important ingredient. Turmeric is applied on the wounds to heal injuries.
This practice confirms Indian knowledge about the anti-septic nature of this great herb.
According to an article published in the Hindu dated 25 April 2005, Turmeric is being used in treating the Alzheimer disease. It is even applied as a preventive medicine in its treatment. Dr. Cinthapalli Rao and his colleagues, at American Health Foundation, New York, have succeeded in using Turmeric in cancer ailments.
In the year 1995 American patent office had granted patent to Mississippi Medical Centre (5401504). With this, age old knowledge of applying Turmeric, as a medicine became the intellectual property of that Institute.
Dr Masalkar, an NRI, had filed objection to the above patent. His untiring “knowledge crusade” during the last decade had ultimately yielded the results. Recently the patent issued to the above said institute had been revoked.
How long, we have to fight these kinds of Knowledge battles? The traditional Indian medical texts are replete with the knowledge of using more than 1,50,000 medicinal herbs. How to save them from being patented? One of the effective solutions is to digitalize the knowledge that is latent in our Ayurvedic texts. Preparing the effective database of medicinal plants is a gigantic task that requires, untiring efforts and huge funds. Many patriotic citizens of India have taken up this challenge. It is believed that more than 5000 Indian Herbs have been already patented. It is time that we have to build up a great movement to protect our traditional medicinal knowledge. Let us be united in our efforts and move forward.
17. Copper Shields our Health
Today, we prefer bottled mineral water, ofcourse! Cleaned and purified. We often purchase purified, potable water and drink it. We take this precaution to protect ourselves from ill health, which is often caused by contaminated water or impure water. This health tip is not just modern, but known to Indians ages ago. They knew the technique of purifying water and preserving it.
Ancient Indians used copper and brass vessels to purify and store water. They used to drink water in the copper pots and tumblers. This practice had drawn attention of many modern day researchers. They wanted to find the rationale behind the age-old usage of copper and brass vessels for drinking and storing water.
Today after in-depth investigations, it has been found that, the sunlight that falls on the copper vessels instantly eliminates microbes present in the water by a chemical reaction. Thus water is protected from contamination.
Rob Reed, a London based Micro-Biologist had verified this fact by filling the copper, plastic and earthen vessels with Escherichia coli bacteria which causes diseases like dysentery etc. After 24 hrs bacteria in copper vessels got dramatically reduced and at the end of 48 hours there were no traces of bacteria in copper vessels. On the other hand, the bacteria in the plastic and earthen vessels got increased substantially.
(Source: The Hindu dt 20.4.2005)
Today, Indian star hotels serve rich delicacies and doubly purified water in copper vessels.
18. Successful Jai-“Poor Foot
In Rigveda there is a reference that an artificial leg made of Iron had been fitted to a woman warrior called Vischala, the wife of King Khela, by the eminent divine surgeons Ashwin Kumars. (Ref 1.116.14&15)
This Vedic reference substantiates the fact that the ancient Indians knew the skill of making artificial limbs.
Twenty years ago, a film called “Nache Mayuri” was a big and sensational hit. The heroine of that movie Sudha Chandran did not have a leg and danced with an artificial leg designed and fitted at Jaipur. For the past thirty-five years this Jaipur foot had created, sensation & history and served millons of poor by providing them, “the joyful ride of life journey”.
So let us get into the saga of successful Jaipur foot.
In the year 1968, a team of doctors from SMS College, Jaipur and a traditional sculptor had come together to design this world famous Jaipur foot. The team was headed by an orthopaediac professor name Dr. P.K. Sethi. The other members of the team Dr. S.C. Kasliwal, Dr. Mahesh Vidhawat and master sculptor Sri Ramachandra Sharma.
The reasons for the popularity of Jaipur foot or leg
- It is a very low cost artificial limb.
- It is a very effective artificial leg, with which one can perform all the activities, as one having a natural leg.
- It is very easy to fit it and use it.
Till today around 10 Lakh, people had been fitted with artificial limbs by this institute. People from all over the world come all the way to Jaipur to get this fitted.
Bhagvan Mahavir Vikalang Sahayak Samiti (BMVSS) is the organization behind this miraculous feat. Since 1975, this organization had helped many a physically challenged persons, especially the poor to take giant strides in their life journey.
In the year 2005-2006, around seventy thousand people were helped and fitted with artificial limbs.
In Indian an artificial limb is being fitted for Rs. 1200, when it cots Rs. 40-50,000 in western countries, thanks to the efforts of BMVSS.Poor people can pedal cycle Rikshaws, can perform all the agricultural activities etc with this artificial leg.
Ther service hearted Ramchandra Sharma’s personal supervision and meticulous attention are a living example of dedication and commitment in offering this noble service
This Indian success story is unique in the world.
It stand as a testimony to Indian genius, Indian resolve and Indian spirit of service.
“Three-quarters of the wealth of the world has come out of India, and does even now. The commerce of India has been the turning point, the pivot, of the history of the world. Whatever nation got, it became powerful and civilized. The Greeks got it and became the mighty Greeks; the Romans got it and became the mighty Romans.
India has been the one country to which every nation that has become strong wants to go and conquer – it being reputed to be very rich. The wealth of the people had become a fable, even in the most ancient history. [Many foreign invaders] rushed to become wealthy in India and conquered the country.”
- Swami Vivekananda
Green Skills of Eternal India Vyavasaya Pratibha
Some Interesting Agri Facts of India
The Tank irrigated are has come down from 16.51% (1952-53) to 5.18% (1999-2000). The Ground water tapping has increased from 30.17% (1952-53) to 55.36% (1999-2000). This shows we are depleting ground water potential of the country.
As early as 300B.C. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, mentioned in his memoris – “the whole country is under tank based irrigation systems and is very prosperous because of the double harvests which they are able to reap each year.”
According to the late Dr. Richharia, the well-known rice scientist, there are over 200,000 varieties of rice in India alone. The so-called green revolution has resulted in a massive loss of on farm biodiversity.
India has 2% of the world’s land and 16% of the wolrd’s population and 68% of live stock population.
The immense commercialization of agriculture has also had a very negative effect on the environment. The use of pesticides has led to enormous levels of chemical buildup in our environment, in soil, water, air, in animals and even in our own bodies.
Fertilisers have a short-term effect on productivity but a longer-term negative effect on the environment where they remain for years after leaching and running off, contaminating ground water and water bodies. The use of hybrid seeds and the practice of monoculture has led to a severe threat to local and indigenous varieties, whose germplasm can be lost for ever. All this for “productivity”.
Traditional organic farming is the only solution.
Let us together bring new organic green revolution.
19. Traditional Agricultural Expertise
India is the cradle for Agriculture. Knowledge of Agriculture and its evolution as Agricultural Science can be traced from Rigveda. It reveals to us how one has to prepare oneself for ploughing the fields and the rituals involved in it.
Rigvida extols Sun not only as God, but also recognizes Sun as the source of light, for all the living beings. It explains the water cycle, how water evaporates because of sunlight and how these vapors become clouds and reach the earth as rains.
At various instances, Rigveda gives us the knowledge of Green skills and Cattle Science that are required by a farmer.
Measuring the Rainfall:
Kautilya or Chanukya in his treatise “Artha Sastra” (written during 4th century B.C.) had explained the methods of measuring of Rainfall. In this legendary book we can find the rainfall recorded at various places during those times.
Varahamihira in his encyclopedic work, “Bhrhat-samhitha” (written during 6th Century A.D) had explained about the instruments that are required for measuring the Rainfall. “Adika” is the vessel like instrument that collects the rainfall, which was 20 inches in diameter and 8 inches in depth. The Adika was also a unit of measure for recording rainfall. Four Adikas were equal to one Droni.
Varahamihira had explained that the rainfall accompanied by thunders, clouds, sunlight and heavy winds would scatter around 400Sq miles of area. On the other hand the rainfall accompanied by clouds and heavy winds, limits itself to smaller area.
Fertility of the soils:
Sage Kashyapa in his text “Krushi-Suktha” had described about the soil that is most suitable for producing rice. He had even classified the crops that can be produced on fertile lands and dry lands. In the Sanskrit text “Amarakosa” (written during 4th century BC) twelve varieties of soil that are suitable for agriculture had been explained. Surapala in his famous text “Vriksha Ayurveda” (written during 10th century AD) explains three types of soils and their utilities.
Parasara in his book “Krishi Parasara” reveals the methods of producing seeds and methods of preserving the quality of the seeds. Kautilya’s Arthasastra discloses the methodology of purifying the seeds through cowdung, milk, fish, bones etc.
Water storage & Irrigation:
Traditional Indian Texts are replete with ways and means of storing water for Agriculture. Kautilya and Kashyapa had recorded in their books how kings of their times had constructed reservoirs for the wellbeing of farmers.
The dams and reservoirs in India existed as early as 4th century B.C. This ‘Sudarshana’ reservoir of Gujarat and Kallanai dam in Tamilnadu stand as the testimonials (even today) for Indian irrigational expertise. Various texts of Buddhism written centuries before the birth of Christ make reference to the existence of reservoirs and other water storage mechanism. Chakrapani in his book “Viswavallaba” explains the methods of detecting the under ground water sources. Varahamihira in his book “Bhahat-samhita” explains the tracing of under ground water, based on the nature of trees, herbs, anthills that exist on the ground.
Methods of yield preservation & storage:
Parasara describes about the methods of storing the grains and other agricultural produce. He even explains the precautions one has to take while preserving the crop yield. According to him, the month of February (Palghuna) is best suited for storing the grains.
Famous Indian Agricultural science texts:
Many ancient Indian texts had described various methods of agriculture, ploughing, seed cultivation, water storage, varieties of soil, measurement of rainfall, storage of crop yield etc. The famous texts are being listed below:
|2.||Artha Sastra||Kautilya||4th century B.C.|
|3.||Krishi parasara||Parasara||1st century B.C.|
|5.||Bhrhat0samhita||Varahamihira||5th century A.D|
|6.||Krishisukta||Kashyapa||9th century A.D|
|7.||Vriksha Ayurveda||Surapala||10th century A.D|
|8.||Manasonullasa||Someswara||11th century A.D|
|9.||Upavana vinoda||Sarangadhara||13th century A.D|
Artha Sastra discusses the organic manures, crop rotation, crop intervals etc.
Parasara in his book Krishi Parasara reveals the methods of producing seeds and methods of preserving the quality of the seeds.
Since Vedic times, we lived with cattle, we reared them and we loved them and even worshipped them. Cattle wealth was considered to be a sign of prosperity in ancient India.
Vedas, Ayurvedic texts of Charaka, Sushruta and Salihotra, Manusmriti, Bhrhat-samhita, Agni Purana and Vishnu Dharmothara puranas had discussed extensively cattle science and animal husbandry.
According to modern knowledge sprinkling of Sodium Chloride and Silver Iodide over clouds in the sky produces rain. Clouds are very essential for creating artificial rains. The success rate is only 30%.
During ancient times, Indians attracted clouds through yagnas and rains poured in. The ingredients used in yagnas for attracting clouds have certain special properties. The mantras that are chanted during these yagnas stimulated necessary vibrations in the sky along with the Agnihotra fire. Above all, the pure resolve and prayers of our elders had convinced the mother nature, to shower her grace through rains.
Lord Krishna in the Gita says:
“All beings are born from the Anna (Nourishing food). This nourishment takes place because of rains. Rains are obtained through yagnas. Yagnas are possible because of sacrificing endeavours (karma) of human efforts.”
20. Father of Botany – Sage Parasara
In the year 1665 AD, Robert Hook, a botanist with the help of his microscope, explained to the world about the Plant cell and its structure. One thousand and six hundred years ago prior to that date, sage Parasara in 1st century A.D had clearly explained the structure of a Plant cell in the Sanskrit work “Vriksha Ayurveda”.
Parasara had even explained the phenomenon of the Photosynthesis (process of self nourishment in the plants) in the fourth chapter (Vriksha sharira Dharma sastram) of the same book.
In the year 1894 A.D, a scientist called Dixcona Joli had proved that plants take food and water through their roots. Ancient Indians were aware of this fact. In the Indian epic Mahabharatha, plants had been described as “padapa” which take water through their roots. (Ref Shanti parva, 184 chapter, 18 sloka)
In the text Vriksha Ayurveda, Parasara clearly explains that plants prepare food through their leaves, for which they take water from their roots. He called this process as “syandhana”.
He had categorized plants according to the various types of fruits, flowers, leaves and roots. Many other ancient Indian scientists like Varahamihira, Charaka, and Sushruta had also classified the plant kingdom.
Varahamihira in his book Bhrhat-samhita had discussed four important plant diseases.
Since Vedic times, India had the in-depth knowledge about plant kingdom and its varieties.
Every classical Indian text, starting from Upanishads, The Ramayana, The Mahabharata and The Srimad Bhagavata deal with science of plants as plants as a passing reference in many instances.
Indians considered plants as the gift of Nature. Plants had been used very extensively and intimately by our elders in the fields of medicine, art, agriculture, food (fruits & vegetables) and in the daily rituals and worship.
“Vrikshu Rakshati Rakshitalu” “Protect the plants, plants in turn protect you”, was the philosophy that guided our ancestors who lived in tune with nature.
Atharva Veda had classified plants into eight categories based on their growth.
“Charaka Samhita” describes four catergories of plants based on fruits and flowers.
“Sushruta Samhita” classifies plants into ten categories based on the plant utility.
Parasara had classified the seeds into two varieties namely Eka-dala-beeja (mono cotyledons) and dwi-dala-beeja (di-coryledons). He had classified flowers into various categories. His classification resembles the modern classification in many ways.
“Upa-vana-vinodhi” is a classical text that deals with Horticulture.
Another text “pridhivi Niraaparyuam” describes various responses of plants, including sleeping, happiness, sorrow, etc. In modern times, the great Indian scientist JC Bose had proved about the various plant responses through his experiments and instruments.
21. Indian Cattle Science
Ancient Indians lived in tune with nature. Plants, animals and of course all living beings were considered sacred by them. Cattle were the part of their lives. Cows were worshipped with all sanctity. They were cared well and their wellbeing was given the top priority. Kings considered Horses, Cow and Elephants as wealth.
Puranas and Cattle Science:
King Nala had the title “Ashva-vith”. It means the person who had complete knowledge about Horses.
Pandava Kings Nakula and Sahadeva were experts in cattle science. Nakula wrote a book called “Ashva Chikitsa” (Treatment of Horses). Sahadeva had expert knowledge about cows.
King Dasaratha of the Ramayana had a contemporary who was a master in Gajaayurveda.
Indian Medical Sciences and Cattle:
Ayurvedic texts deal with treatment of cattle. Charaka, Sushruta & Harita Samhitas deals with various animal diseases and their treatments.
Father of Veterinary Science:
Salihotra, who lived in eight century B.C, is considered to be the Father of Veterinary science. He wrote a famous text called “Haya-Ayurveda”. It consists of 12,000 verses and had been divided into eight parts. Complete text is not available today.
First chapter of the book deals with horses, their types, their characteristic features, and methods of finding a Horse’s age, their anatomy and the horses that the kings alone should ride.
Second chapter of the book deals with diseases of the cattle, fevers, eye problems, snakebites, wounds and their treatment.
Third chapter deals with Gynecological problems of horses,pregnancy and other venereal deseases in horses.
Fourth chapter deals with food to be given horses, their rearing, oral diseases, dysentery and its treatment.
Fifth and sixth chapters deal with planetary influence on horses.
Seventh chapter deals with the impediments that a veterinary physician had to face.
Eighth chapter deals with the Physical marks & signs on horses and their interpretation. It also deals with training of horses and making of various chariots.
Agni, Garuda and Matsya puranas refer about the book Haya-ayurveda. This book was translated into various foreign languages, like Persian, Arabic, English etc.
Even today, in certain places of North Western India and Central Asia, veterinary physician is often called as “Salotri” an eternal tribuite to this great Indian physician.
22. Genius of Indian Mathematical Brains
Mathematical knowledge that exists today is a gift from ancient India. Believe it or not, it is true.
One of the Twentieth century’s greatest brains, Albert Einstein had said about India’s contribution in the following words.
“We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count through decimal system, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made”.
1. Decimal system: Nine numbers and a zero can be combined to form infinite mathematical expressions and measurements. This knowledge is said to be the unique contribution of ancient Indian genius to world’s progress.
During Vedic times, this decimal system was very much in vogue in India. Yujur Veda Samhita 17th chapter, 2nd mantra describes the numerical values in a sequence like
Eka, dasa, sata, sahasra, ayuta, laksha, niyuta, koti, arbud, vrinda, kharav, nikharav, shankha, padma, sagar, antya, Madhya, parardha etc. Paradha’s value is equal to 1012.
A Buddhistic text called “Lalita Vistara” (1st century BC) describes upto1053 and called that numerical value as “Talakshna”. Another Jain text (Anuyogadwara) describes numbers up to 10140.
During the ancient period, Greeks gave the biggest numerical value called myriad, which is equal to 104, ie. 10000 only.
Biggest Roman numerical were 103.ie 1000 only. It was called as “milli”.
The numbers from zero to nine were first adopted by Arabs from India and had spread to Europe. Today we call these numerical as Indo-Arab numerical
2. Zero’s Glory: Without India’s richest “zero”, the whole of mathematical knowledge becomes zero. Indians used zero not only as the mathematical expression but also as philosophical concept.
Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and many Indian classical texts had dealt with zero in various ways.
Pingala (2nd century BC) in his Vedagana text “Chandas Sastra” (Aguide to study Vedic prosody), while explaining Gayatri Chandas mentions zero.
Gayatre sadsamkhyamardhes panite dvyanke avasista srayastesu
Rupamapaniya dvyankashah sunyam sthapyam!!
In the domain of Mathematics, usage of negative numbers came into existence because of zero’s invention.
In Isavasya Upanishad, in the Shanti mantra, tere is a verse, which describes the philosophy of zero
Purna madah purna medam purnat purna mudacyate
Purnasya purnamadaya purnameva vasisyate
“From zero or completeness everything came and into zero or completeness everything merges, zero or completeness alone exists”. In Sanskrit, “purnam” is used to denote “zero” or “completeness.”
Brahma gupta in his mathematical text “brahma sputa sidhanta” (written during 620AD) proves that any number divided by zero becomes infinity.
“Suryapragnapti” (400BC), a Jain text had classified the numbers into three varieties. It describes five kinds of infinites.
Addtions, subtractions, multiplications and divisions; squares, square roots and cube roots were known to Indians and can be found in most of the mathematical texts of India.
Bhaskaracharya (11 century AD) had said, all kinds of mathematical expressions can be said in two processes. They are (1) Process of Increase (2) Process of Decrease from them all the other mathematical concepts evolved.
In the text Ganitasarasangraha (850 AD), Sridharacharya explains LCM, zero, finding square roots and solving quadratic equations etc.
Sridharacharya in his text Pathi-Ganitam describes concepts of calculating simple interest, compound interest, problems on time and distance, time taken for filling the water etc.
In Jain manuscripts of Bhakshali, we can find about negative numbers, fractions, sequences of Arithmetic progression and geometric progression etc.
Geometry: Geometry, an important branch of mathematics had originated in India. The word Geometry is a Sanskrit word means measuring the earth. Jya in Sanskrit means earth, miti means measurement. “Jyamiti” or geometry means measuring the earth.
Kalpa Sastra, a part of Vedangas contains “SulbaSutras”, which explains the techniques of constructing yagna vedicas (vedic sacrificial altars and platforms). From these verses, the branch of Geometry evolved.
Today, what we call Pythagoras Theorem is a mere repetition of what had been said in Baudhayana “Sulba Sutras”, written five to six hundred years before Pythagoras.
Dirgha caturasasyaksnya rajjuh parsvamani tiryak mani ca
Yatprthagbhu te kurutah tadubhayam karoti
In a right-angled triangle, the square of the diagonal on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of squares of other two sides.
(Baudhayana sula sutras ch. 1-12 sloka)
Pi value: The value of pi had attracted the attention of every Mathematician whether Indian or western, ancient or modern. The pi is constant value of the ratio between the circumference and diameter in a circle.
Great Indian Astronomer Aryabhatta (5th century AD) had calculated the value of Pi as 3.1416, which is accurate upto four decimals. (Aryabhattiyam-ganitapada-chapter 2-10 verse)
Apart from Aryabhatta, Mahaviracharya, Bhaskaracharya, Nilakanta Somayaje, Ramanujam also had calculated the value of pi.
Circling a square and rectangle, which are equal in areas, can be found in Indian Mathematical texts.
Brahmagupta in his text Brahmasputa Siddanta (12th chapter 28th verse) describes the mathematical methods for finding the lengths of diagonals of rectangle that is embedded in a circle.
Bhaskaracharya in his book “Leelavati” describes cyclic quadrilateral, cyclic pentagon, cyclic hexagon and cyclic octogen, and further postulates that sides of quadrilaterals and the diameter of circle that is circumscribing them shall be in a constant ratio.
Aryabhatta in his text Aryabhattiyam gives the formula for calculation of area of triangle as 1/2BH where “B” is the base of triangle and “H” is the height of the triangle.
Tribhujasya phala sariram samadalakoti bhujartha samvargah
Trigonometry: Trigonometry is a gift of ancient India to the mathematical world. The concepts of sign and cosign had been evolved by Indian Mathematicians.
Aryabhatta had tabulated the several values of sign from 00 to 900 in his famous mathematical work Aryabhattiyam.
Bhaskaracharya had postulated various trigonometric principles and equations in his text leelavati.
Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Lalla and other Indian Mathematicians had given various Trigonometry formulae.
Kerala Mathematician Madhava (1340-1425) in his book “karana padathi” dealt extensively with Trigonometric formulae & functions.
Calculus: What we call today, “Calculus” was called by ancient Indians as “Kalana Ganana sastra”. Ages before Newton had made use of it, Aryabhatta and Bhaskara charya had dealt with this branch of Mathematics in their Astronomical calculations.
Bhaskaracharya in his work “Siddhanta siromani” (4th chapter Graha Ganita) deals with the concept of differentiation and its application by considering the temporal positions of various planets.
Aryabhatta had pioneered this method of calculating the temporal positions of various planets and had introduced to the world the knowledge of Calculus.
Brahmagupta and Madhava had developed this branch of Mathematics by introducing Integral Calculus.
Algebra: This branch of Mathematics is also an Indian invention. During 9th century AD, Arabs adopted it and from them it has spread to the other parts of the world.
Indian seers of yore like Apasthambha, Baudhayana, and Katsyayana in his Kalpa Sutra had introduced the “unknown” value in their Mathematical expressions. Afterwards, Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya, Madhava and others developed various algebraic formulae, equations and functions.
Bhaskaracharya calls Algebra as Ayaktha Ganita or Beeja Ganita. He had said that Vyaktha Ganita leads to Ayakthaganita. In his book Leelavati he deals with vyathaganita (Arethmatic) before dealing with Ayaktha Ganita.
Indian Mathematical genius is evident from seers of Vedic times to Twentieth century Ramanujam. Today, what we call as computer language (bakus Normal form) is a replication of Ranini’s grammar rules.
Indian Mathematical crown has ever-shinning gems to its credit.
23. Indian Chemistry through Ages
The Science of Chemistry flourished since 155 BC in India. There are many evidences to substantiate this fact. Indians called Chemistry as “Rasa vidya”.
Even texts like Vatsyayana Kama Sutra, mention about Chemical processes like “Suvarna Rasa Pariksha” (A chemical test to find the purity of gold).
From making pots out of the mud to melting of metals and other products and vapourizing them, distilling them, solidifying them and the other Chemical processes were known to Indians since the dawn of History.
Ancient Indians knew the knowledge of making plain Glass and coloured galss. This fact can be supported by Historical references in Indian literature and Archeological evidences. The books that support the existence of Glass and Glass products in India are the Ramayana, Bhrhat-samhita and Kautilya’s Artha Sastra.
The Harrappan people of Indus valley civilization had the knowledge of utilizing the metals like Gold, Silver and other alloys. In Vedas there are ample references about the ornaments that are made of various alloys of some metals. (Gigveda 1-122-14, Shukla Yajurveda 8-13).
Advanced knowledge of Chemistry is required to make metals into alloys and turn them into products of utility like idols, ornaments, vessels, instruments & artifacts etc. The text Rasarnavam-(11.213.17) deals with this process.
The period between 600 BC to 800 AD can be called as the Golden period of Indian Chemistry. The Science of Indian Chemistry is rooted not only in the classical texts written exclusively on Chemistry, but also in various Ayurvedic texts like Charaka & Sushruta Samhitas, encyclopedic works like and Bhrhat-samhita and Kautilya’s Artha Sastra.
S.No. Important classical Chemistry texts of India Authors
1. Rasaratnakaram, Kakshaputa Tantram, Arogya Manjari,
Yogasaram & Yogashatakam Nagarjuna
2. Rasaratna Samuchayam Vagbhatta
3. Rasarnavam Govindacharya
4. Rasa Prakasha Sudhakaram Yasodhara
5. Rasendra Chintamani Ramachandra
6. Rasendra Chudamani Soma deva
The knowledge of basic building blocks of universe as “Paramanus” (atomic particles) of “Padarthas” (Matter), can be found in Vaisheshika Sutras of Kanaad. (6th century BC) The basic five elements (Pancha bhuttas) and its intermingling properties were clearly mentioned in many Indian books of varied branches of science.
Ayurvedic texts had revealed various chemical processes that happen within the Human body, centuries before birth of Christ. Kautilya’s Artha shastra had reference of abailability of various metallic ores at various places, the methods of purification, the utility of various metals & alloys, layouts of chemical laboratories (Rasasalas). The gold plating of copper also has a special mention in this book Ref0(2-12-30). In books of Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil & Marathi, we find the preparation of gunpowder and fireworks. The Sanskrit references of Gunpowder can be found in Sukra Niti & Rasa-Upanishad. In Rigveda we find the mention of cotton dyeing & leather tanning and the chemicals used in the processes.
Making of Soaps, Toiletries, Perfumes & other drugs require highly advanced knowledge of Chemistry (Reference: Manusmriti, Yagnavalka smriti)
Indian Textiles were dyed using vegetable colour and by making suitable chemical treatment, which had attracted Europeans to come to India. The finest clothes of world are produced in India; the skills of dyeing them require advanced chemical knowledge.
Indians used mercury as divine medicine. It was used in many Ayurvedic preparations. Mercury was subjected to 18 types of chemical purification processes, before it was used as medicine. In a text called “Rasaratna Samuchaya” (7th chapter), there is a description about the Chemical laboratory, the various instruments used therein and the orderly place3ment ofvarious instruments that process the chemical reactions. Thirty-two instruments had been mentioned therein. The names of a few instruments are (1) Dola Yantra (2) Swadhini Yantra (3) Patana Yantra (4) Adhaspadhana Yantra (5) Daki Yantra (6) Balak Yantra (7) Tiryaka patina Yantra (8) Vidhyadhar Yantra (9) Dhupa Yantra (10) Koshti Yantra (11) Kachappa Yantra (12) Damaraka Yantra.
Indian Chemical knowledge had grown with the Knowledge of “Tantra” (Indian mystical practice) and deteriorated with it. Tantric knowledge of India had followed two systems of practice to attain “siddhi” (enlightenment). They are Deha siddhi and Loha siddhi. In the method of Deha Siddhi, mercury is mostly used to eliminate body Toxicities and protect the body from decay, old age and delay the process of death. Deha in Sanskrit means, “body”. In the method of Loha siddhi, metals & alloys of Iron & Copper were converted into gold & silver and were used as medicines. Through Loha siddhi, they aimed at deha siddhi. Loha in Sanskrit means (metal).
Iron Pillar at Delhi stands tall as a testimonial for Indian metallurgical marvel and superiority of chemical Knowledge.
The father of modern Indian Chemistry, Sri Prafulla Chandra Ray, had done an extensive research in the Histroy and evolution of Indian Chemical knowledge. His book “History of Hindu Chemistry” speaks volumes about chemical ingenuity of Indians through ages.
24. Ship Building Skills
The English word “Navigation” had been derived from the Sanskrit word “Navagati” meaning sea voyage. India has 5,000 years of navigational history. Our navigational skills date back to the times of Indus valley civilization.
There is evidence to substantiate that India for the past 30 centuries was as central commercial hub. It had trade links not only with Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British but also with Asian countries like China, Japan, Indonesia, Burma, Java and Singapore through Navigation.
In a treatise written by King Bhoja by name Yuthakalpatharu, it was described how ships are to be constructed, their varieties and their nomenclature.
Ships, which were built in India, were of two categories namely Soumya (simple) and Vishesha (Complex). They were built in different shapes. Most of the ships are multistoried and compartmentalized.
Indian ships were mostly built by teak wood; hence their quality was of superior nature.
The persons involved in building the ships were highly skilled artisans. For this reason, Indian ships were in great demand. Further, the longetivity of ships built in India was for half a century, in comparison with occidentally built ships, which had only ten to twelve years of longevity and were subjected to frequent repairs.
Because of usage of lighter wood in construction, Indian ships had the capacity to bear greater loads. There are enough evidences to substantiate that nearly 275 ships were built in Hoogly harbour from 1781 AD to 1821 AD.
The total transport capacity of these ships was nearly 1,22 lakh tones. In Mumbai, between 1736 AD to 1836 AD, nearly 300 ships were built and British exploited the ship building skills of Indians during that period.
It was mentioned in a book called “Le-hindus” published in 1811 AD written by Francoious Balazar Solvyans, a French navigator, that Englanders had learnt ship building skills and allied techniques from Indians.
Here is a recent reference to India’s superior ship building skills. The Wall Street journal dt; 28.05.2003 had published a news item regarding America’s was on Iraq. It says “A ship built based on the technology mentioned in old Indian literature, proved extremely successful in the war. This ship travels faster than many other ships. It transported more number of tanks than other ships and had capacity to convey nearly 5000 Soldiers. Further it used to cover 2,500kms in 48 hours” –(report based on www.hindu.com, www.tribunal.com).
Marcopolo, a famous navigator reported that Indian ships had the capacity to transport nearly 300 persons. Marcopola graphically described about Indian ports and harbours. (Reference: India through ages by G.Kuppuram page 521-529)
Even today, it is believed that Japan is the first Asian country, which had defeated European ships on a sea battle in the year 1905. But in the year 1742, king Marthanda Varma of Travancore deafeated the Dutch Naval Cavalry consequently the Dutch Nav;y was completely humiliated and its naval commander surrendered to Marthanda Varma and served him loyally for more than two & half decades. This may be called as the first Asian naval victory of modern times.
Most of ancient Indian exports were made to Roman and Eygptian expires. Most of the merchandise was cotton and Silk Textiles, Gems, Perfumes etc. Roman women were crazy about the superior quality of Indian cloth. They exchanged gold for cloth. (Enclycopedia Britanica 11 chapter-459 page)
Kautilya’s Artha sastra describes the various governing principles and administration procedures of ancient times. In that famous book we find mention about the port management system prevailing in those days. He describes the hierarchy of port administration; accordingly, the port commissioner and harbour manager and other officials assist the minister for navigation.
Ancient Indian navigation made it possible to establish Indian settlements in Indonesia, Sumitra, Java, Malaysia and South America etc.
From Gulf of Kutch to Bay of Bengal, the entire Indian coast was once radiantly vibrating with seaports and harbours. Various Kingdoms along the Indian seacoast constructed ships, established ports and traded with Europe and Asian countries.
The Indian skill of building ships was viewed with awe and wonder and ofcourse with envy & fear as well.
British Government, that ruled India had brought a legislation in the year 1814 AD, which had destabilized the Indian shipbuilding Industry. It had banned the entry of Indian made ships into European ports. By the year 1863, Indian ship building artisans were jobless and were completely rooted out.
Sir William Deigo sarcastically comments that with the law in force, British queen had eliminated the Indian naval queen.
25. Machine Science of India
Modern world is all, mechanical. Without machines, nothing moves in the modern man’s life. Machine and Man have become sym-biotic in existence. Industrial revolution had bonded the man with the machine wheels. They rather bounded him within their automatic chains.
If machine is so important, what was ancient India’s perception about machines and machine science? What was the level of advancement of Indian mechanical knowledge?
Indian seers had extensively described utility of machines and its limits too. Machines were called as “Yantras” in Sanskrit. Yantra in Sanskrit means, “that which controls”. The word Yantra is a very broad term, its scope in Indian context is just not limited to mere mechanical device. The term had wide usage in various fields of Indian sciences like Ayurveda (medicine), Rasasastra (Chemistry), Khagola (Astronomy), Jyotish (Science of light populary called as Astrology), Yuddhashastra (warfare), and in rituals of worship like Tantrashastra.
Bharadwaj’s “Yantrasarvaswam” is considered to be an authoritative text on Indian mechanical science. It contains the description of various machines and their utility.
In Balakanda of the Ramayana, while describing Ayodhya, Sage Valmiki refers to the separate zone within the city, where machines and weapons were kept; something like secured Industrial Estates of today (refer Balkanda-sarga 5.sloka10). In Ayodhya Kanda Rama advises Bharata on techniques of Governance. In that context Rama asks Bharata about the safety of machines that are placed in various forts. (Ayodhaya knada-sarga 100-Sloka53).
In the Mahabharata, Arjuna hitting the “Matsya yantra” and marrying Draupadi is a well-known fact to most of the Indians. The description of Matsya yantra reveals to us that it was an automated marine device and often compared with today’s marine compass.
Kautilya’s Artha Sastra mentions about various machines that were used in warfare and civil works. “Yantra-varnavam” a mechanical science text in Sanskrit defines the machine in the following manner.
dandaiscakraisca dantaisca sarani bhramanadibhih
sakterutpadanam kim va calanam yantramucyte
Yantra (the machine) contains the following parts such as a Danda-lever; Chakra-pulley, danta-toothed wheel, sarani-inclined plane; and bhramana-screw; which is used to produce force or used to divert force.
Raja Bhoja in his work “Samaranganasutradhara” describes twenty characteristics of efficient machine. Tjhey include effective coordination between various parts of the machine, accuracy, fine-tuning, and noiseless functioning of various parts. He had also described the utility of various machines. In the 31st chapter of “Samaranganasutradhara” hydraulics had been discussed. In the the Astronomical text “Surya Sidhanta” in the chapter yantradhyaya, there is clear description of the water wheel (Slokas 53-56). Bharadwaj in his text “Yantrasarvasva” in the chapters on “Vaimanika Sastra” explains about 31 types of machines used in an Aircraft. Viswakriya Darpanam, Disadarsi, Vakraprasarana yantra, were a few devices, which guide a pilot to monitor the surroundings, to trace movements of enemy aircraft and to mislead an enemy Aircraft.
GR Joyser in his book “Diamonds, mechanisms, weapons of war and Yoga sutras”, describes various machines that were used by ancient Indinas by using fuel as power. Some of the machines described therein resemble “Artificial Elephant machine” similar to the one described in famous Sanskrit historical drama “Swapna Vasavadatta” written by Basa.
Sage Kanaad in his text Vaisheshika Darshana describes five types of actions/motions. These laws relate to the modern laws of mechanics. Prasistapada, in his commentary on Vaisheshika Darshana describes the “Gati-sutras” (the laws of motion which resemble in every way Newton’s “Laws of Motion”).
Almost one thousand years before Newton’s Laws of Motion, India’s Mechanical knowledge flourished. It remains a mystery, why Indian mechanical devices and the knowledge related to it withered away. Perhaps seers of wisdom understood the dangerous effects of industrialization on human life.
26. Hijacked Indian Aeronautics
On Dec 17th 1903, an aircraft thrust into the skies and became the (so called) first aircraft in the human history. Wright Brothers became its inventors. We all greatly adore them today and we teach this fact to our children in schools. But to our surprise the truth seems to be different.
Eight years before Wright borther’s aerial show, in India in the year 1895, at the Chowpaty beach in Bombay, an aircraft flew in the skies upto 1,500 ft, when large Indian audience watched this feat. And this performance happened in the august presence of His Highness Maharaja of Baroda Sri Sayaji Rao Gaikwad and honorable Judge Mahadev Govind Ranade. This event was covered and published by the then popular newspaper “Kesari” which waspublished from Pune.
The inventor of that aircraft was an ordinary Sanskrit scholar, named “Siva Kumar Bapuji Talapade”
The name of this aircraft was “Maruti Shakti”. This aircraft had been built based on the technology mentioned in the Sanskrit Text written by Bharadwaj called “yantra Sarvasvam”. Talapade adopted the technology from the chapters of “Vaimanika sastra” of Bharadwaja’s book. The then British Government, after strictly warning the Baroda Maharaja not to fund the project, stalled this experiment. It seems that the experimental remnants of the plane and various working plans had been taken over by the British Government. (Source: Deccan Herald, Tuesday Dec 16, 2003)
Did our ancestors have much advanced knowledge about aircrafts? If so, what happened to all that? Why such an advanced knowledge had been kept as a secret? What is this Vaimanika Sastra of Bharadwaj? What are its contents? Whether modern scientists did any research on its contents? If so, what are their findings in this reagard?
For almost twenty years, many scientists at Aeronautical society of India, NASA, Professors and students of many prominent universities of the world were doing research in their own way on this Vaimanaki Sastra of Bharadwaj. They were able to appreciate the advanced level of knowledge about Aeronautics in this book. But much of their research findings arenot being revealed to public.
Bodhanananda, a scholar had written a commentary on and explanations to Vaimanika sastra of Bharadwaj.
Another scholor called “Subbaraya Sharma” of Mysore had composed a text on aeronautics based on Bharadwaj’s Vaimanika Sastra. This book was translated and published by Sri R.S. Jyoser in English. The English version of this book is available today on the website www.sacred-texts.com.
Bharadwaj’s vimana sastra contains,
Eight main chapters-100 Adhikarnas (sub chapters),
500 sutra (aphorisms), 3000 slokas and 32 aeronautical secrets.
In this text, there are references to about 25 existing texts related to Aeronautics (Vimana sastra). Drawings done in 1923 from vimana texts.
Among the referred books we find “Sakti Sutram” of Agasthya, “Saudhamini kala” written by a scholar named Eswara, “Vayu Tatwa Prakarana” of Sakataayana, “Vysanala Tantra” and “Dhuma Prakaranam” written by Narada, “Vasraayaana Tantra” of Saunaka, “Vimana Chandrika” written by Narayana Maharshi, Garga’s “Yantrakalpa” and “Yanabindu” written by Vachaspati etc.
The above texts were referred by Bharadwaj to define Vimanas, types of Vimanas that are available in various Yugas, qualifications of pilots, dress code of pilots and travelers, food to be consumed while flying, various machines of Vimanas, fuels that are suitable to fly Vimanas, metals and their treatment for building a Vimana, the situations that a pilot had to encounter in the air on flight and the way and means of overcoming them etc.
According to Narayana Maharshi, the Vimana had been defined as a vehicle that travels on the land and water and can fly like a bird in the sky.
Referring to Paunaka Mahamuni, sage Bharadwaj says “A vehicle that travels in the sky from one place to another is called a Vimana”.
Bharadwaj had dealt about four types of fuels that can be used by vimanas. They are:
- Vanaspati Oil
- Mercury Gas
- Solar Energy
- Directly consuming power from the air
The modern aircrafts are run by burning the hot gases. But recently scientists at NASA had experimented with the techniques of using mercury as mentioned in vimana sastra texts of India and designed mercury vortex engines successfully.
They adopted the technology mentioned in “Samaranganasutradhara” written by King Bhoja and translated by William Chlorundon into English.
Machines mentioned in Vimana sastra:
There are 31 types of machines mentioned in this text
- Viswa kriya darpanam: This is an effective mirror device, which shows to the pilot the surroundings around the aircraft. Mercury and Mica are used in its preparation.
- Parivasha Kriya Yantram: It is a self-propelling device that operates the aircraft.
- Tamogarbha yantra: During aerial fights, this device hides the aircraft from being viewed, a kind of stealth technology. A special alloy called “Tamo garbha” was used in this device.
Scientists at Birla science centre, Hyderabad and IIT Bombay had done research on the metals mentioned in Vimana Texts and could decipher their utility and techniques of making alloys suitable for building aircrafts.
The Vimana text mentions the 32 secrets that a pilot should know. The pilot should have expert knowledge. They are like – propelling the flight into the sky, halting the flight in the sky, making suitable somersaults and driving the flight in jig jag way, suddenly increasing the speed and reducing the speed within the shortest possible time, techniques of protecting the flight when attacked by enemy aircrafts during aerial fights.
Bharadwaj refers to SageSaunaka, who had classified the situations that a pilot faces during the flight into five categories.
Types of Vimanas: During the Satya and Tretha yuga, vimanas were called & classified as “Mantrikavimanas”. They were of twenty-five types. They used to work with physical and mystical powers.
During Dwapara yuga, Vimanas were categorized as “Tantrika Type”. There are 56 varieties of this kind. During Kali yuga, Vimanas have been named as “Kritika” type. There are 25 varieties of this kind, which are run by machines.
The above classification confirms that, the views expressed in Puranas cannot be brushed aside as figs of imagination.
Indian Puranas havemany references to vimanas,
Rakshasas called “Tripurasuras” had aerial cities, which used to fly in air and travel on earth and water. When they were torturing people, Lord Siva eliminated them.
In the Ramayana, Sage Valmiki had wonderfully described the “Pushpaka Vimana”. The description resembles an aerial city that can move. Ravana captured this vimana from Kubera.
In Bhagvatam there is a mention about aerial attack by Shishupala’s friend Salva on Krishna’s Dwaraka. His space vehicle was called as Soubha and was made up of Iron. It had the technique of appearing and disappearing in the sky after an attack. It can thrust out many aircrafts from itself. It was not just an aircraft or Vimana. It can be called as an aerial city. Lord Krishna after waging a fierce battle destroyed that space vehicle. Vyasa, the writer of Bhagvatam goes at length to explain the power & functions of this space vehicle used by Salva against Krishna.
In the same text Bhagavatham, Kapila’s parents, sage Kapartha and Devahuthi go for inter-stellar travel in a Vimana.
While discussing administrative principles, Kautilya’s Artha sastra refers to the importance, due recognition and respect that had to be given to pilots by the Governemnt. Kautilya called the pilots as “Saubhikas” and persons who were involved in aerial battles as “Aakasa Yodhas”.
Recently Chinese Government had handed over the Sanskrit manuscripts that were discovered in Tibetian region to professor Rutherana of Chandigarh University to decipher the contents. These manuscripts contain the information about inter-stellar travel and anti gravitational flights (laghima). This only confirms the height of Indian Aeronautical excellence achieved ages ago.
27. Sound Secrets
Ancient Indians duly recognized the importance of sound & sound energies.
During the 17th century Galileo, had postulated that sound travels in waves. Afterwards, many scientists have done extensive research on the properties of sound waves. They had found many utilities by using sound vibrations. Ultra Sonics, Echo-graphy, Radio etc are modern applications of the sound waves.
Ancient Indians had also utilized sound energy in various ways. Indians knew the secrets of sound and made extensive use of them in many day-to-day activities.
If sound waves are the vibrations, conversely vibrations should produce sound. It means that every vibration has sound associated with it. Albert Einstein and other modern scientists had described this universe as an embodiment of energy. We normally recognize energy through vibrations. It means energy is manifested through vibrations and vibrations in trun manifest sound.
When ancient Indian literature declares that this universe had come out from the first breath of God, it’s about the first vibration of that cosmic energy, the first explosion (Maha visphotam in Sanskrit), the modern Bigbang theory.
The vibrations of sound are eternal, so are the Vedas. These sound vibrations never vanish; they would remain latent in space. Suitable stimulations manifest sound energy. Ancient Indian seers through their efforts of penance produced the necessary vibrations. They virtually tapped these eternal sound energies after visualizing them. They systematized the knowledge and had bequeathed the same to posterity, as Veda mantras with each sukta (a group of mantras) revealing about each aspect of cosmic function. (Devata).
Hence, Vedas are eternal and are without beginning. They are not man made sound vibrations. They exist in the cosmos eternally. The person often taps them by making necessary stimulations within through a precise sound pattern. They are often called as “Srutis”.
Now coming to the aspect of producing the sound within, Panini, the world’s first grammarian had given the science of it, the phonetics through his treatise “Astadhyayi”. Sage Patanjali had written wonderful commentary, (Maha bhashya) on Panini’s Book.
He explains the origin of sound within the human body in four stages called (1) Para (2) Pashyanti (3) Madhyama (4) Vykari Human soul or the Atman is the ultimate. The sound manifests from the Atman. This stage is called “Para Vakhu”. Then this assumes a pattern through the mind. This stage is called “Pashyanti”. Then it gathers the required energy and reaches the throat region. This stage is called “Madhyama”. Afterwards, it finds expression through mouth, with the help of upper jaw, lower jaw, tongue and lips. Final expression is called “vykari” which is what we hear.
Indian alphabets have been divided between the letters “A” to “ksha” (“Aksha”). They have been categorized into various varieties based on the pronunciation.
Some of them are (1) Kanthyas (Gutturals) (2) Talavyas (Palatals) (3) Murdhanyas (linguals) (4) Dantyas (Dentals) (5) Osthyas (Labials) etc.
The pitch of the sound is also divided into three parts (1) Udata (High pitch) (2) Anudata (low pitch) (3) Swarita (Balance between the high & the low)
As explained earlier, Vedas are called Srutis. Since Vedas are infinite sound vibrations, our seers have commanded us only to utter or hear Vedas and not to write them. Seers had given them to us for our wellbeing. Vedic hyms connect human soul with cosmic vibrations. It is for this reason; Indians had given great importance to sound.
Before chanting the Veda mantras, a person should obtain proficiency in the following six subjects. They are called “Vedangas”.
- Siksha Sastram: It is about ways and means pronouncing Veda mantras.
- Vyakaranam: The grammer involved in Vedas and structured expression of language.
- Niruktam: Etymology of Vedic verses and their contextual meanings.
- Kalpa sastra: The ways and menas of performing Vedic rites and rituals.
- Chandas: It reveals the meter of the Vedic verses and prosody.
- Jyotisham: Knowledge of time for timely performance of Vedic rituals.
For human wellbeing, our seers had discovered the cosmic laws and secrets and have transmitted them to us through the Vedas. Infinite are Vedic vibes. The essence of Vedas is in Pranava, the omkar. Sri Krishna says in Geeta “Pranavaha Sarva Vedeshu”. Cosmos and sound originated together. The sound of the first cosmic explosion (Big bang) and the eternal sound of minutest vibration is “Omkar”, It is called “Nada Brahma”. Omkar is the key to unlock immense cosmic potential. Omkar is the engine for every activity, whether cosmic or mundane. Omkar is the sound that exists in the past, present and the future. Omkar is not just a letter or a symbol; it is the very essence of cosmic vibrations. It is the sound of sounds and the sound of silence.
Indians used the sound energy in many ways; Indian classical music is nothing but an applied science of sound energy. Melodious music charms snakes; Wild animals get tamed; Cows give excess milk; Plants blossom with flowers; Trees bear fruits; Rains pour out, nature responds with joy, Lamps can be lit just by the melody of the music; many a disease can be cured through the science of music; it is an application of sound vibrations. The knowledge of mantras is again an applied aspect of sound. Ancient Indians played with sound, enjoyed sound and protected themselves with sound vibrations. Kudos! To them, for their knowledge about Sound Secrets.
28. Hidden Knowledge in Nataraja’s Cosmic Dance
Indians worship Siva in the form of Linga (Parabolic sacred stone) and at the same time adores him in the form of Nataraja (the dancing Siva), as divine personification of the entire domain of arts.
The Idol of Nataraja has ubiquitous presence in all houses, throughout the world, both in Indian and Western Homes.
Behind this dancing pose of Siva, there seems to be a hidden cosmic secret. These words are not said by an ordinary person, but by a world-renowned professor of Nuclear physics, Fritj of Capra. He had explained the philosophy behind Nataraja’s cosmic dance in his popular book “The Tao of Physics”.
For a modern scientist of physics, Siva’s dance appears as the dance of Atomic particles. The ancient Indian perspective about the world is nothing but the eternal cosmic dance of creation, sustenance and dissolution that happen with a rhythm. This is the root cause for everything.
According to Quantum theory of Physics, creation is full of Atomic particles. Each particle has enormous energy latent in it. These particles are very dynamic in nature and change their form within split seconds.
Sub-Atomic particles have dual nature, some times they appear as particles sometimes they become continuous stream of energy. They often change from wave to particle and vice versa in a rhythm and eternally lose their existence.
Matter is nothing but a group of atomic particles. Particles move within it in a structured rhythm.
Because of that, forms get created, forms get dissolved, forms grow and decay in a continuous way. In every change or move there is a rhythm in life, there is a beauty and harmony in this subtle change. It is a dance of cosmic life; forms appear, disappear and reappear; from the minutest particle to a gigantic star all are changing and are in a flux; dancing to the symphony of cosmic breath of life; dancing to the tunes of cosmic rhythm;
Fritj of Capra could see Siva’s cosmic dance as the secret of creation. He interpreted Nataraja’s dance in three facets
- The dynamic arch around Siva represents the ever-changing cosmic rhythm.
- The cause for Siva’s dance is for redemption of soul from the cosmic cycle.
- The sacred space “Chidambaram” the platform of Siva’s dance is in one’s own’s heart. One has to be tuned to the cosmic dance of Siva, through this “Hridaya Akasha”.
The philosophy of Siva’s dance is the congruence of Science, Arts and Religion, the hidden knowledge about cosmos.
29. Finding the Basic Building Blocks of the Universe-Atomic Theory
What are the basic building blocks of this universe? Even today, Modern scientists are not in a position to answer this question. Many theories are being propounded and are being amended subsequently. Finally scientists of Particle Physics (a branch of Physics) are accepting the oriental views and trying to understand the ancient Indian perception about the universe.
Let us now look into perceptional changes that happened over centuries among the so-called modern scientific community influenced by western outlook.
450 BC: Preliminary Atomic theory, propounded by Democritus says that atoms are indivisible particles of the matter.
300 BC: Aristotle had postulated that Universe is made up of four elements earth, air, water and fire. (Similar to the already exisiting oriental view)
17th century AD:
- Dalton’s atomic theory: Dalton is the first person to propound atomic theory that the Smallest particles of matter are atoms, but each atom of different element differs in size and shape from the other element. Atoms combine in definite ratio of weights to form molecules without Atoms getting broken down.
- Newton proposed a mechanical Universe that consists of smallest indivisible particles of matter. According to Newton, Time is absolute and uni-dimensional. Space is three-dimensional (Length, breadth and Height). Time and space is not related to each other.
19th century AD:
1840 AD: Micheal Faraday had proved with his experiments about Electro-Magnetism. He had explained the charged fields around a particle; both negatively charged and positively charged fields.
1895 AD: Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-Rays.
1897 AD: JJ. Thomson discovered the negatively charged particles of an atom called electrons.
20th entury AD:
1905 AD; Albert Einstein had proposed the special theory of relativity. Accordingly
- He had given famous equation E=MC2 through which he had postulated that the matter is the manifestation of energy; energy and matter are inter convertible.
- Time and Space or inter-related and are relative to each other.
- Light has dual nature; Light rays are waves as well as energy particles. Scientists of later years have found photons (particles of light) as predicted by Einstein.
Einstein’s special theory of relativity had changed the domain of physical science. A new branch of physical science evolved called “Atomic Physics” or “Nuclear Physics” or “Particle physics” or “Quantum Physics”.
1911-1913: Neilbhor and Ruther Ford had postulated the orbital structure of atom.
In every atom there shall be a nucleus.
Around the nucleus, there shall be negatively charged particles called electrons moving in a structured orbit.
In the nucleus, there shall be positively charged particles called protons and neutrally charged particles called neutrons.
If electrons orbit around the nucleus in a structured way, the atom remains stable. In an excited state, if electrons jump from one orbit to another orbit, they gain in strength or lose in strength changing the structure of atom.
1927- Warner Hesinburg proved through his “theory of uncertainty” that the electron is not a particle and its structure cannot be determined easily as it continuously changes its position.
The journey of investigation of finding the fundamental building blocks of universe continued within the atom and today we have around 200 sub-atomic particles.
These particles were divided into two basic categories namely “Quark” particles and “Lepton” particles.
The quark particles are the minutest particles. They remain at the very subtle level of existence. They lose stability within no time. The very identification of these particles depends upon the perception of the observer. This means, each observer observes them in a different way. In other wards, quark particles exist according to the subjective perception of the observer. So with the advent of particle physics, the observer of the experiment is becoming the participator in the process. The universe at the subtle level is becoming completely subjective.
At the subtle level with in an atom, there are many interactions that are happening between these particles of energy. The stability of an atom depends upon these interactions of various evergy particles.
Every interaction depends upon the charged fields that surround a particle. Four basic forces influence these charge fields and interactions.
- Gravitational force
- Electro-magnetic forces
- Storong nuclear forces
- Weak nuclear forces
Unified field theory visualizes the grand unification of these forces. This has pushed physics into another domain of study that is finding the basic building blocks of Nature in a holistic way.
Today, universe is being studied as unified-interconnected stream of energy particles.
During the last years of twentieth century, a new theory came into existence called string theory. According to string theory quarks and leptons are not particles but vibrating strings and loops. The whole universe is interconnected through a super string of vibrating strings.
What are the basic Building Blocks of universe – Indian perception?
Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Shad-Darshanas, (among them Sankhya, Vaishesika, Nyaya Darshanas) had postulated many theories about Universe and its atomic structure in their own perspective.
In the sixth century BC, Kanaad Maharshi had written Vaisheshika sastra and had postulated verses about structure of Universe from the atomic point of view.
The words “Anu” and “Parmaanu” are the Sanskrit words that are used to describe the atom and subatomic particles.
Vaisheshika Darshana has 373 verses spread over twelve chapters.
Vaisheshika Darshana had described the universe as the interplay of seven aspects or states of material things. They are (1) Dravyam (Matter) (2) Guna (Quality) (3) Karma (Action) (4) Samanya (Generic species) (5) Vishesha (unique trait) (6) Samavaya (inherence or intergrated part of the whole) (7) Abhava (Non exisistence).
Dravya guna karma samanya visesa samavayanam padarthanam
Vaisheshika Darshana-Verse; (1.4)
Dravyam (Matter) is again subdivided into nine aspects they are (1) Prithvi (Earth) (2) Jala (Water) (3) Teja (Light) (4) Vayu (Gas) (5) Akasa (Ether) (6) Dik (Direction-space dimension) (7) Kaala (Time) (8) Manas (Mind) (9) Atma (Soul)
“prthivyapastejo vayurakasam kalodigatma mana iti dravyani”
Vaisheshika Darshana – Verse;(1.5)
As described by Kanaad maharshi, the mind and atman were also considered as the aspects of matter. Today modern science is also considering the perception of mind in atomic structural analysis.
vibhavanmahanakasastatha ca atma – Verse (7-1-22)
Parmaanus get influenced by Atman (person)
“nityam parimandalam” – Verse (7-1-20)
Parmaanu is always in continuous state of motion.
There are two states of matter. One is “anu sthiti” (micro level state) another is “mahat sthiti” (macro level state). – Verse (7-1-11)
When matter is continuously divided into sub atomic particles (parmaanus) it reaches a state, wherein divided further, the particle looses its basic nature and identity. – Verse (7-1-12-14)
Ancient Indians perceived the relativity of time and space. For this reason, Maharshi Kanaad had categorized both of them as aspects of matter and included them in Dravyas.
According to Prasistapada, who had written commentary on the “vaisheshika darshanam-padartha artha sanghraham” (Ref:2.2.9) – a partcle’s creation, sustenance and destruction can only be expressed in terms of time.
Vaisheshika Darshana had wonderfully proposed the interactions among various particles of the matter. The same can be expressed, as a combination and interplay of three factors namely matter, quality and action.
Two atomic/sub atomic particles come together to form a particle called “dwi-anukam” three-“triyaanukam” four-“Caturanukam”.
Because of heating of atoms or exciting of energy particles, called “Pilapaka kriya” the process of creation is happening.
Many scholars had commented Kanaad’s Vaisheshika Darshana. Among them works of Prasistapada, Vyomasiva and Chandramati are considered to be authoritative commentaries. These commentaries are attracting the modern nuclear scientists in many ways. Apart from Kanaad, Kapila through his Saankhya Sastra had described about 24 aspects of Universe and its components.
Vedas, Upanishads, Brahmasutras, Bhagavadgita and other classical texts of India considered this universe as one unit, pervaded by Paramatma (cosmic soul). Indians perceive that whatever is in micro-cosm is also in the macro-cosm and are intimately connected. The modern string theory also reveals the same about the Universal truth.
30. String Theory
Modern science is yet to conclude that sub atomic particles like quark particles and lepton particles are basic building blocks of the universe.
Reason for this is that scientists could unite three of the four fundamental forces of interaction among subatomic particles, they are:-
- Electro – Magnetic Forces
- Strong Nuclear Forces
- Weak Nuclear Forces
By uniting the three forces, scientists could study the behavior and properties of quark and lepton particles. Yet they could not unite the fourth fundamental force i.e Gravitational force with the other three forces in studying the behavior pattern of subatomic particles.
During the last years of the 20th century, scientists have proposed a new theory called string theory. According to that, quarks and leptons are not particles. They are the subtle vibrating strings with closed and open loops. The gigantic star and minutest quark string are connected through a superstring. Hence the whole universe is being considered as one unit by the most modern concepts of science. This theory facilitates facilitates the study of all the four fundamental forces of interactions.
In Vedas in Sata PataBrahmana (220.127.116.11) it is said that sun and the entire universe are connected in a string. That string is Vayu. Please note that Vayu is not gas or air according to Vedic meaning Veda a string. That string is Vayu. Please note that Vayu is not gas or air according to Vedic meaning. Veda Niruka defines Vayu as one that pervades everything.
In Bhagvad Geeta in the sloka (7.7) Sri Krishna says to Arjuna,
mattah parataram nanyat kincidasti dhananjaya
mayi sarvamidam protam sutre manigana iva
“Like pearls strung in a string, the whole cosmos is strung within me”
As revealed by Lord Krishna, the whole cosmos from the gigantic star to the minutest particle, everything is stringed. (Together). Today our modern scientists call it as super string.
The influence of stars on the minutest particle or on an event on the earth had been studied by Indian Jyotish Sastra (the Indian science of light, popularly called as Astrology).
Ancient Indian knowledge recognized everything in the universe as one consciousness and cultured our minds in that direction. There is huge literature to support this fact. Modern science is also reaching the same conclusions.
31. Time Space & Relativity – Einstein Vs India’s Perspective
In the year 1916, Einsterin had proposed his general theory of relativity after postulating special theory of relativity in the year 1905.
According to the General theory of relativity
- Time & Space are relative to each other.
- Rate of flow of time changes according to the size and shape of planets. In the vicinity of larger planets, the rate of flow of time shall be slow. In the vicinity of smaller planets, the rate of flow of time shall be fast. It means various planets shall have different rates of flow of Time.
- If a person after travelling at the speed of light in space and returns to the earth, the changes that happened on the earth shall be many times more than the changes that happened to him. Many centuries would have elapsed on the earth during that interval.
Before Einestein’s theory of Relativity, Western world never considered the view that Time and space are relative to each other. But, in India every “thing” is described with reference to Time. Prasistapada in his commentary on Vaisheshika Sastra of Kanaad says, a thing (matter)’s creation, sustenance and destruction can only be described in terms of time. (Ref: Padartha Artha Sangraha02-2-9).
Indian culture had assimilated this scientific fact into its daily life. Hence, Indians valued Time and related every thing and every event in terms of Time.
Jyotish sastra (Indian science of light, popularly called as astrology) considers the movements of various planets and relates them to the human behavior. It means it is co-relating various rates of flow of time of varius planets on the human behavior on the earth surface.
For example, while preparing a Jyotish chart (Horoscope) or kundali of a new born, the time of birth and place of birth were taken together and are compared with various planetary positions (which vary according to the respective rates of flow of time) Different life pictures would evolve for the babies being born at the same time, but at different places. The birth chart of a baby born at Delhi at 8.30am would be different from the birth chart of a baby born at Madras at the same time.
The reason for this variation is due to Time & Space relativity.
Aryabhatta in his famous text Aryabhattiyam explains this concept of relativity differently with a wonderful example. He says for a person who is travelling in a boat sees the tree on the bank travelling in the opposite direction. Similarly if a person stands at the centre of equator and observes the galaxies, they appear to him that they are moving in the western direction. He means that our observation of Universe is relative to our presence on the earth and is a factor of our rate of observation.
To substantiate the fact that our seers of yore understood this time space relativity, there is an episode in Maha Bhagvatam, which can precisely be related to Einstein’s example of a person travelling in space shuttle with a speed of light for few hours and returning to the earth and finding to his surprise that many centuries had passed by during his journey away from the earth.
The story goes like this.
Once upon a “time”, there was a King called Raivataka. He had a son called Kukudmi. And Kukudmi in turn had a daughter called Revati, who was very tall. He could not find suitable groom for his daughter, because of her height. Then King Kukudmi with his power of penance goes to the Brahmaloka along with his daughter. When he reaches Brahma loka, he finds lord Brahma listening to a music recital. The king waits till the end of the recital and approaches Brahma and asks him why he had created his daughter, so tall a person.
After, listening to the king’s plight, Brahma laughs loudly and reminds him that during the period of recital of 15 minutes at Brahmaloka, 27 chathuryugas had elapsed on the earth (4320000 years X 27). He further advises that on the earth, in the 28th chatyur Yuga, Dwapara Yuga is running and the king should go back and marry her daughter to Krishna’s brother Balrama. As a concluding remark he says, that the king had done the good thing of bringing his daughter along with him to Brahmaloka. (Bhagavatam – 9th chapter-36sloka)
The above story may be called a fiction, but the essence of the story says that there are different rates of time flow at different celestial regions, which the author wanted to convey. Please do not forget that ancient Indian Astronomers and Mathematicians had contributed Calculus, Trigonometry, Algebra, Geometry to world thought. We are yet to unravel the many advanced concepts mentioned in our ancient literature.
In books like “Yogavashishtha”, there are concepts like going beyond Time and Space. These concepts were thoroughly debated in Indian philosophy and Indian schools of logic like Saankhya, Nyaya, Mimamsa and Vaisheshika Darshanas.
In Bhagavad Geeta, Krishna says to Arjuna;
bahuni me vyatitani janmani tava carjuna
tanyaham veda sarvani na tvam vettha parantapah (4Ch – 5 Sloka)
“Oh! Parantapa, for you and for me, many births and deaths had taken place. I know them all, you don’t know them at all.”
Here Krishna was explaining to Arjuna the concepts of knowing things beyond time & space. In the Indian context, we come across many an Indian yogi, who remains in a state of going beyond the concepts of Time & Space.
32. Evolution theory-Animal-Human-God or reverse, Which is true?
Life in the creation began from the minutest uni-cellular organisms, which evolved into multi-cellular organisms, then into flora and fauna and finally from monkeys human beings evolved. This is the story of evolution; we read in our textbooks.
Modern theory of evolution is called Darwin theory of evolution. According to it
- There is variety in every species of life.
- All the living beings compete with each other, to utilize limited available resources.
- The species capacitated to reproduce more alone shall thrive.
- In a species, genetic features get transmitted from one generation to another.
- Natural selection and survival of the fittest are the main reasons for evolution of one species to another.
This theory was propounded by Darwin in the year 1850, through his famous book “The origin of species”. It had created sensation and became popular instantly. It had changed the face of “science of Biology”. The words “Natural selection”, “Survival of the fiftest” and struggle for existence” became the words of Mantra.
But there were many criticisms against this theory. During 1930, a new theory called neo Darwinism came into being. With the discovery of DNA, in 1970, the biological science had taken a new turn and a new branch called Molecular Biology evolved. Study of Genes and Genetic code became the main function of it. Between 2000-2004, the Genomes had been classified and experiments such as cloning are being conducted. In the context of 21st century Biological knowledge of genomes and genetic engineering, the concepts of natural selection, survival of the fittest have become redundant and outdated.
Even from the ethical point of view, Darwin’s theory was critised by none other than the world-renowned behavioral scientist Bertrand Russell, ‘From evolution, as far as our present knowledge shows, no ultimately optimistic philosophy can be validly inferred.’
Modern evolution theory confines itself to physical and biological aspects. Whereas Knowledge of ancient India, not only considers, physical aspects of evolution, but also takes into account physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of evolution.
Indian perspective about evolution:
“From perfection every thing manifested and everything merges again into perfection and perfection alone remains.” This is the central theme of Indian evolution.
From the lowest protoplasm to the perfect human being there is really but one life. Just as in one life we have so many various phases of expression, the protoplasm developing into the baby, the child, the young man, the old man, so, from that protoplasm upto the most perfect man we get one continuous life, one chain. This is evolution, but we have seen that each evolution presupposes an involution. The whole of this life, which slowly manifests itself, evolves itself from the protoplasm to the perfected human being—the Incarnation of God on earth the whole of this series is but one life, and the whole of this manifestation must have been involved in that very protoplasm.
Yet Indians classified various species of life and had complete knowledge of each species. Many ancient Indian sages, scholars or scientists had classified the species according to generic characterstic basis. The famous among them are Charaka, Sushruta, Prasistapada, Panini, Varahamihira, Parasara and Patanjali.
The Bhrhat-Vishnu Purana states that there are around 84,00,000 species in the creation
Sthavara – 20,00,000 species of non-mobile plants
Jalachara – 9,00,000 species of aquatic creatures
Kurmas – 9,00,000 species of amphibian and reptiles
Pakshi – 10,00,000 species of birds
Pashu – 30,00,000 species of other creatures such as animals etc.
Vanaras – 4,00,000 species of anthropoids (Vanaras)
Manushya – 2,00,000 varieties of human beings come into being
The modern concepts of Genetic Engineering, cloning, do find a place in Indian literature, like puranas and yoga sutras of Patanjali.
Swami Vivekananda’s views on Darwin’s theory are as under-
“In the animal kingdom we really see such laws as struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, etc., evidently at work. Therefore, Darwin’s theory seems true to a certain extent. But in the human kingdom, where there is the manifestation of rationality, we find just the reverse of those laws… The highest evolution of man is effected through sacrifice alone. A man is great among his fellow beings in proportion as he can sacrifice for the sake of others, while in the lower strata of the animal kingdom, that animal is the strongest which can kill the greatest number of animals. Hence the struggle theory is not equally applicable to both kingdoms. Man’s struggle is in the mental sphere. A man is greater in proportion, if he can control his mind’s activities are perfectly at rest, the Atman manifests itself. (Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. VII, p. 154-55)
Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras reveals what is meant by evolution
“jatyantara parinamah prakrtya purat” (Patanjali Yoga sutras-Ch4-sloka2)
Internal nature is the main reason for evolution from one species to another.
Patanjali declares in the next sutra that,
“The change of the body from one species to another is caused by the inflowing of the jiva’s nature. Good and bad deeds are not the direct causes of its transformation. They act as breakers of obstacles to the inflow of nature, just as a farmer breaks down obstacles in a water course to let water flow of itself.”
Expanding on this declaration of Patanjali, Swami Vivekananda has written commentary in his book Raja yoga regarding evolution,
“Perfection is man’s nature, only it is barred in and prevented from taking its proper course. If anyone can take the bar off, in rushes “nature”. Then the man attains the powers, which are his already… It is “nature” that is driving us towards perfection, and eventually she will bring everyone there… which is our birthright, our “nature”.
Today, the evolution theory of the ancient Yogis will be better understood in the light of modern research. Yet the theory of the Yogis is a better explanation. The two causes of evolution advanced by the moderns, viz sexual selection and survival of the fittest, are inadequate. Suppose human knowledge to have advanced so much as to eliminate competition, both from the function of acquiring physical sustenance and of acquiring a mate. Then, according to the moderns, human progress will stop and the race will die…
Swami Vivekananda further says…
“But the great ancient evolutionist, Patanjali, declares that the true secret of evolution is the manifestation of the perfection which is already in every being; that this perfection had been barred and the infinite tide behind is struggling to express itself. These struggles and competitions are but the results of our ignorance, because we do not know the proper way to unlock the gate and let the water in. This infinite tide behind must express itself, it is the cause of all manifestation. Competitions for life or self-gratification are only momentary, unnecessary, extraneous efforts, caused by ignorance. Even when all competition has ceased, this perfect nature behind will make us go forward until everyone has become perfect. Therefore there is no reason to believe that competition is necessary to progress.” (Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. I, p.292-93)
In Bhagavatam there is a verse describing human evolution lucidly,
srstya purani vividhanyajayatma saktyavrksan
sarisrpan pasun khagadamsa matsyam
tasmai atustah hrdayah purusam vidhaya
brahma valokadhisanam mudam mapa devah
“Cosmic being manifests itself as creation. Trees, acquatic beings, insects, reptiles, animals, birds, germs and all the species of living beings got manifested. But the consciousness never manifested in full in all of the above species. Hence Human being was created. Through Human being there is an opportunity to manifest that perfection”
Vedanta always talks about the divinity of Human being. This concept of divinity is indicative of three factors:
- The feeling of oneness,
- Recognizing the infinite power within,
- The perennial urge to evolve and outgrow the limitations by the removal of obstacles through the greater manifestation of the divinity within.
Then “Tat twan asi-thou art that” becomes the watch ward to manifest perfection.
“Oneness amongst men, the advancement of unity in diversity – this has been the core religion of India.”
Poet and writer of India’s national anthem and Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, (1861-1941)
“The Indian way of life provides the vision of the natural, real way of life. We veil ourselves with unnatural masks. On the face of India are the tender expressions which carry the mark of the Creator’s hand.”
George Bernard Shaw
Irish dramatist, literary critic, socialist spokesman
33. Sage Agastya’s way of Generating Electricity
In a Sanskrit treatise called, Agastya Samhita, sage Agastya had reavealed the method of gnenerating electricity in a simple way. Modern battery cell resembles Agastya’s method of generating electricity.
For generating electricity, Sage Agastya had used the following material
- One earthen pot
- Copper plate
- Copper sulphate
- Wet saw dust
- Zinc amalgam
Samsthapya mrnmayam patram tamrapatram susamskrtam
Cadayet sikhigrivena cardrabhih kasthapamsubhih
Dastalosto nidhatatvah paradaccaditastatah
Utpadayati tanmitram samyogastamradastoyoh
(Verse from – Agastya Samhita – Shilpa Sastra Sara.)
Agastya had further explained that if electricity generated from one hundred pots is thrown on water, then water splits into Hydrogen and Oxygen. He had also stated that this hydrogen (Udajani vayu) can be used as fuel in aircrafts.
In the same text many utilities of electricity thus generated had been mentioned. Techniques of electroplating of various metals and alloys with gold silver and copper were also mentioned.
34. Building Technology of India
Indian Building technology dates back to Indus valley civilization. The existing archeological renants of Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa stood ages, to testify the Indian building skills.
Ancient Indian edifices are known by their everlasting building products used therein. Dwelling places, Temples, Forts and other utility buildings were built in different forms and styles of architecture.
Building materials like bricks were manufactured in a scientific way. Klined bricks were used in constructions. There are many evidences to support it.
The then British Government used the 5,000 year old bricks found near Harrappan sites while laying railway line to Lahore in place of metal bed. They found them in fifteen standard sizes. (Ref: Lost Discoveries by Dick – Teresi Page 60)
“Mayamatha-kalamula Sastra”, written by Kapila Vatsyayana, mentions about methods of making bricks and products used in brick making. (slokas 114-120)
vyasarthartha tribhagaika tivra madhye paraspare
istaka bahusah sasyah samdagdhah punasca tah
The book “Mayamatha-kalamula Sastra” also mentions methods of preparation of lime mortar and products that are used in making it. It also mentions about solidifying strengtch of that lime mortar.
35. Indian Town Planning Skills
When buildings of ancient India displayed beauty, towns of ancient India enhanced the beauty multifold. Five thousand years ago towns and cities of ancient India flourished with majesty and grandeur.
Broad roadways, streets running from North to South or East to West, with well-planned sectors of residential zones, underground drainage systems, centrally located temple square are typical of Indian style of town planning.
Kushinagar was the city of ninth century BC. Buildings of this city had the cylindrical structures erected on its top to allow free flow of air and light. These structures stand today to the astonishment of world.
Great bath, drainage systems, well planned dwelling places of Mohan-jo-daro create awe and wonder within us. Mortar coating appears on the ruined walls of this ancient city. The quality and sizes of bricks used for construction are visible to us even today. They reflect the height of engineering excellence of our ancestors.
Valmiki Ramayana describes the three cities namely Ayodhya, Kishkindha and Lanka. Each of the three cites was described in a unique way, yet multi storied buildings, broad roads, Industrial zones and business clusters were typical of each city.
Every book of Indian literature describes the city and its civilization related to the context before getting into the main theme of the book. The splendor of cities described in these books only reflects the advanced urban civilization of ancient India.
There are many technical texts like Vaastu Sastra in Sanskrit that describe the methods of planning and building towns and cities.
“Sukraniti”, describes how to construct roads. It describes the ratio of products that are used in the lime stone mixture applied on the roads. The roads of ancient India appered as had as smooth as tortoise’s shell. Ancient Indian Kings gave importance for construction of drains and culverts by the side of main roadways.
(Surkraniti ch-1-sloka165 & 166)
Kautilya in his treatise Artha Sastra describes various types of roads prevailing during those times. According to this book, there were separate roads for pedestrians and chariots. There were separate roads for national transport and for royal vehicles.
Viswa karma in his vaastu sastra mentions about the techniques of constructing ghat roads, culverts and plain roads. (Viswa karma vaastu sastra-68-ch-marga lakshna4-7)
Kapila vatsyayana had written a treatise called Mayamatam-Kalamula Sastram (verses 60-61) wherein he describes the swastika pattern of town planning, grid pattern of town planning and radial pattern of town planning.
Most of the Indian towns were built in the form of perfect squares or concentric circles with temple being located at the central position, along with formation of royal roads on the four sides of the temple. Creating a special functional zone for every activity is typical Indian town planning style.
kurmaprstha margabhumah karyagramyaih susetuka
kuryanmargan parsvakhatan nirgamarthe jalasya ca
svastikamuditam grame yatha tatha svastikam vidyat
praguttaramukhamargah sat sadabhistastu tadbahye
36. World’s First Constructed Dam
World’s first dam was constructed in India. Even today, this dam is able to store water and regulate water. This dam remains today as a testimony for our ancient engineering expertise.
The name of this ancient dam is called “kallanai dam”. It was built in 1st century AD across the river Cauvery in Tamilnadu of South India. This dam is located 48 kms away from the temple town Tanjavur.
The height of the dam is 320 meters and width is 60 metres. The important feature of this dam is that no binding materials like limestone or cement were used. It was constructed by the method of interlocking the granite stones.
Karikala Chola, who ruled the province during the 1st century AD, built this dam. He seems to be a great conqueror.
Even today, water stored and collected at this dam is being used for agriculture.
Sudarshan Jalasayam, the oldest man-made reservoir built during 4th BC, in the region of today’s Gujarat, reminds us of the ancient Indian expertise in civil works.
37. “Paper” made in India-first
It is believed that a person called Tshai-lun of China, invented paper and gifted that to Chinese emperor in 105 AD. The art of making paper was kept a secret till the eighth century and Arabs had learnt that art from Chinese and from Arabs it spread to the world and was introduced into India in 10th century and 11th century.
But there are many evidences to show that paper was an Indian invention. It was made from cotton rags. Later it got migrated to china along with Buddhists.
- Yajnavalkya Smriti was composed around fourth century BC. In chapter 1:31( the word “pata’ is used for writing material made from cotton rags. Making of paper from cotton rags is known to the Indians ages before Chinese claim of inventing paper. (Eapat 1912, p-104)
- Itsing, a Chinese traveler visited India during 671 A.D to 695A.D. He saw that paper was known even to laymen in India and Indians also used paper for impressing the images of deities for worship, also with silk.
- In Jain books “Manavijya’s Commentary” part-1 page 167 the word “kagad” or kadgal occurs as equivalent word used for writing material.
- Even Max Mullar in the book “History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature”, 1860 page 517 had said that Nearchus, the ambassador of Alexander who was in the Punjab for some years had stated that Indians used to make paper by beating cotton fabrics.
- Magasthenes, the Greek historian who accompainied Selucus in Chandra Gupta’s court reported that Indians used durable paper for writing horoscopes and almanacs which necessitated long preservation. (Source GS OZA, the palaeography of India p-144)
- Sir M.A stein, British archaeologist traces the wide usage of paper evidencing many manuscripts of second century A.D, written in “kharoshiti” & “paishachi” scripts which were colloquial languages of Sind, Turkistan and Central Asia, once the hinterland of ancient India. (Source: L.P. Barnett, antiquities of India 1913, p-227) These papers were made of cotton rags and are naturally sized.
- David Hunter in his book “The paper making-history and technique of ancient craft” had published a photograph of ancient paper, which is available in British museum, London. It clearly shows the script “Taxshila”, the once famous Indian centre of learning.
- French book “L”INDE CLASSIQUE, written by Manuel Dos, (etudes Indiannes), on page no 685 mentioned that origin of paper around 45 BC. Pointing to script “Takit-I-BA” indicating Taxshila of Ancient India.
- Encyclopedia Britanica indicates the origin of paper to second century B.C (Volume xv11, p-229). “There is no denifite evidence to show where and when the paper was invented”. This stamen appears in many books like British Paper maker Association book called “Paper making”, Longon page-3; Colliner encyclopedia Vol xvi, 1957 p-460, Book called “paper” by H.A. Meddox, 1939, p-3;
- Kashmir paper was made from pulp of rags and hemp with lime and soda added to whiten paper. The Kashmir paper even acquired the staus of being presented as an important article to the kings. By fourteenth century A.D, there were many paper producing centres in India (Sialkot) Punjab, Oudh (Zafarabad), Bihar (Bihar town and Atwal) Bengal (murshidabad and Hoogly) Gujarat (Ahemedabad), Aurangabad and Mysore (during Tippu’s period). Indian paper was exported to many countries of central Asia and elsewhere by fourteenth century. When Chinese paper was made from Bamboo-pulp, Indian paper was made from cotton rags and other material like jute etc. the style of making of paper was unique to India and it was common throughout India. If Indians learnt paper making from other countries, how could Indians excel in making paper within such a short time?
38. Technique of predicting Earth Quakes
Can 21st century’s scientists predict Earquakes? Not surely. They are making sincere attempts to forecast the forthcoming catastrophes.
An American Scientist of Chinese origin, who lives in California, Mr Zhonghao Shou had been doing experiments to predict earthquakes for the past fifteen years.
He had found the technique of identifying the clouds in the sky before the advent of earthquakes. Clouds in the sky appear in mysterious shapes. So far he had predicted 39 earthquakes.
The rationale behind formation of clouds is that before the advent of earthquake at its epicenter, there would be generation of enormous amount of heat. The heat escapes into air and results in the formation of thick and fancy clouds, 50 days before the actual disaster.
Then what are Indians to do with it?
In the 5th century BC, Varahamihira, an ancient Indian Astronomer and Mathematician had mentioned the above fact in his famous encyclopedic work,
“Bhrhat-samhita”. The thirty-second chapter of this book deals with various ways of predicting earthquakes.
According to Varahamihira, three would be fanciful clouds in the sky, seven days before the earthquake. He had even classified the various types of earthquakes and the related cloud formations.
He had analyzed the planetary influence and under ground water’s disappearance before the advent of earthquake. He had even analyzed the abnormal behavior of birds and domestic animals days before the earthquake. The information and knowledge about the earthquakes that lie latent in that book shall save the lives of millions, if an earthquake is predicted in time.
Source: Times of India 28th april 2001 & Bhrhat-samhita – 32nd chapter written by Varahamihira
39. Finding the underground Water Resources
Varahamihira (6th century AD), the great Astronomer has a great encyclopedic work to his credit “Bhrhat-samhita”. The Fifty Fourth Chapter of this great book deals with the technique of exploring the underground water potential. Following are the few techniques mentioned therein:-
Rainwater falling from the sky possesses no colour and taste. But it acquires various colours and tastes when it reaches the earth owing to the differences in the nature of the soil. Hence, water should be examined in relation to its environment.
Just as there are veins in the human body, there are veins inside the earth carrying water; some close to the surface and some others at a deeper level. These flow in eight directions and are named after the presiding deities. There is also a ninth vein known as Mahashira. Hundreds of smaller veins branch off from these main veins.
If there is an anthill covered by the holy grass to the north east of a mountain ebony tree there will be inexahaustible water at a depth of twenty-two and a half cubits between the tree and the anthill.
The appearance of a snake of the colour of lotus calyx at a depth of five cubits from the surface level, followed by layers of red earth and coryndon stone indicates the presence of water.
The trees, which are short and widespread, with long hanging branches and glossy leaves, indicate the presence of underground water nearby, whereas trees, which are hollow and dry with pale leaves, indicate non-existence of underground water nearby.
If there were an anthill to the east of a Jambutree, there would be sweet water at distance of three cubits to the north of the tree and at a depth of ten cubits under the ground.
If fish is found from the surface level, at a depth of two and a half cubits followed by layers of stone in the colour of a dove and blue clay, then under these layers there will be inexhaustible source of water.
If a Rotang tree is seen flourishing in a waterless tract, it indicates the presence of water at a distance of three cubits to the West of the tree and at a depth of seven and half cubits under the ground.
At a depth of two and a half cubits from the surface level, if a pale white frog is seen followed by layers of yellow clay and hard stone, water will be found underneath these layers.
According to the geologist, Dr. EAV Prasad, in the year 1981 ISRO and Venketeshwara University, Tirupati had successfully undertaken a project of digging borewells according to the water tracing methods of Varahamihira. Even today these borewells are flourishing with water.
40. A metallurgical marvel-Delhi Iron pillar
Iron pillar located in the compound of Kuthubminar, Delhi, is a metallurgical marvel and stands today as the tallest evidence of Indian talents and Indian genius.
There is no parallel to this iron pillar, anywhere in the world.
Standing firm on the ground to the test of time for past 1,500 years, taking heat, storm, thunder into its stride, the Iron pillar never rusted an inch in its marathon innings.
The height of this Iron pillar is 7.5 metres, and 40 cm in diameter, six tonnes in weight. This marvel seems to have been manufactured during the time of Gupta Kings.
Recently, students and professors of metallurgical department, IIT, Kanpur made an intensive study on this Iron pillar and concluded that the “Misawite coating” that exists on the Iron pillar had protected it from rusting. The Misawite is a compound made of Iron, Oxygen and Hydrogen. The iron used in this pillar contains Phosphorus in major proportion.
Buddha’s bronze statue found in Bihar, never rusted an inch and stood the test of time for more than 2000 years.
The two metallic monumental remanants that appear before us today, speak volumes about the advanced metallurgical knowledge prevailing in ancient India. Great chemical legends like Nagarjuna and others had contributed immensely to this science of metals. Alchemy of Arabs was inspired by the Indian skills of converting ordinary metals into gold.
(Ref: The Hindu 29.8.2002)
41. Origin of Lens
Modern knowledge pronounces that Bacon Roger 1214 AD – 1286AD had invented lens. Does this imply that ancient world was ignorant of usage of lens?
Indians pioneered in surgery. Sushruta (800BC) was considered the earliest surgeon. His famous treatise “Sushruta Samhita” declares that he had performed many eye surgeries and removed cataract. Ancient doctors who performed eye surgeries and eye transplants could not be unaware of utility of lens.
Gautama had written a textbook of Logic called Nyaya, sastra, wherein he refers to the usage of lens
“aprapya grahanam kacabhra patala sphatikantarito palabdheh”
(Nyaya darshana chapter-3-46)
“That which cannot be viewed by the naked eye, can be viewed with the help of Kacha-Glass/lens, Abrapatala-Mica and Spatika-Crystal.”
There would be many such references in our Sanskrit literature, we are yet to discover them. Our search into antiquity may require a special type of lens.
42. Art of Brightening Diamonds
India for eternity is a diamond mine. India was called “Ratna Garbha”. Diamonds are mined here. Diamonds are cut here. Diamonds are polished here. These Indian Diamonds shine everywhere, in all ages. Indian diamond history dates back to 3000 BC.
Vedas speak of Diamonds. Among the Nine gems, Diamond stands glowing with importance. Indian science of light-Jyotish Sastra (popularly called as astrology), Ayurveda, (Indian medical knowledge), Alankara Sastra (Indian knowledge of beautification & jewellery), speaks volumes about diamond usage.
In Ayurveda there is a process called “Agada Tantra”, which removes the toxic substances, along with lead and mercury. Indian Medical texts like Charaka, Sushruta and Astanghridaya, mention the above process.
Indian medical texts had mentioned eight kinds of diamonds. Only diamond ash is used in medicines. Powdered diamond or liquefied diamond is harmful to health. The person who consumes them dies immediately. Diamond ash is used to cure diseases like paralysis, psychic and other neurotic problems.
Tips to identify a pure diamond…
- Pure diamonds always remain flawless without any scratches.
- When a diamond is placed in a glass of warm milk (having room temperature), the milk becomes chill.
- When diamond is dropped in a cup of buttermilk or ghee, they freeze out.
Jyotish Sastra mentions nine gems. Each gem is ascribed to a planet. Among them, Diamond is assigned to “Sukra Graha” (venus). If Venus is not properly placed in a person’s birth chart (Jyotish kundali), then that person many be dull without creativity, without sexual vigour, without comforts, without vehicles. Etc.
If such a person wears diamond, then that person shall receive positive vibrations of planet Venus and may get relieved from the maladies mentioned above.
India was the home of diamonds up to the 18th century. Even Kautilya had mentioned diamond exports in his book Artha Sastra.
Since 1870, the Diamond scenario of the world changed with the discovery of diamond quarries in South America and Brazil. Yet India maintains its superiority in Diamond cutting and polishing.
India had been robbed of its wealth in many ways. Diamonds are no exception. The costliest diamond called “Kohinoor” (found in India) is now shining radiantly on the British crown. Diamond studded Peacock throne had been looted from India, by Nadir Shah.
In the year 2004 AD, the Diamond trade in India was around 10.3 Billion Dollars. Eight of ten diamonds that are produced in world come to India for cutting and polishing. Diamonds shine forever, so do the India’s talents of brightening diamonds shine forever.
43. Magnet & Its Varieties
Natural magnets are abundantly found in a place called Magnesia. It attracts Iron, deflects to north. Magnets can be either natural or artificial.
Ancient Indian books on Chemical science reveal an extensive knowledge about Magnets. In the book called Rasarnavatantra, Ninty kinds of magnets have been mentioned. (Ref Rasarnava tantra-six patala). Among them there are five major varieties
Each of these five varieties had been further divided into six sub categories based on its side or surface like Ekamukha (single surface), Dwimukha (two sided), Trimukha (three sided), total coming to thirty types of magnets. Each of the above combinations is available in three colours like Yellow, Red and Black. All the varieties including colour and facet combination are ninety in number.
Utilities of Magnets as mentioned in Indian Texts:
Yellow coloured magnets are of thirty varieties and normally used to convert ordinary metal into gold.
Black coloured magnets are also of thirty varieties and used in medicinal preparations for curing various diseases.
Red coloured magnets are again of thirty types, mainly used to solidify Mercury.
Grades of Magnets:
Bramakam type magnets is of low grade.
Chumbhukam type of magnets is of medium grade.
Karshakam type of magnets is good.
Dravakam type is the best.
Bramakam can only move the Iron
Chumbukam attracts the iron and can hold it
Karshakam attracts all kinds of materials
Dravakam acts as a catalyst while melting gold and platimum at low temperature
Romakam causes attraction in metals
bhramayellohajatam tu tatkantam bhramakam priye
cumbaye ccumbakam kantam karsayet karsakam priye
yatsaksaddravayelloham tatkantam dravakam bhavet
tadromakantamsphutitat yatharomadgamo bhavet!!
Indian books that give us the knowledge of magnets:
- Rasendra chudamani
- Rasaratna samuchhaya
- Rasa khamadhenu
- Loha padhati
- Loha tantra
44. Marconi’s wire “Less” values
Twenty first century is a “wireless” Century. Radios, TVs, Cell phones, satellite communications and most recent blue tooth technologies are all the technological marvels that are working on the “Wireless Technology”.
Our schoolbooks portray Marconi as the hero and the inventor of “Wireless Technology” or Radio. We are told that in the year 1901, Marconi had transmitted the Morse code without using wires for the first time. He had transmitted them across the continents between England and Canada and became its Inventor.
But truth seems to be different. A brilliant child of mother India, Jagadish Chandra Bose, the then professor of Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta, was its inventor. India is deprived of taking into its stride this greatest technological achievement of Modern world. Today, we remember him for his achievements in Botany alone.
As early as 1895, JC Bose had demonstrated to the public of Calcutta about this technology. He had blasted the gunpowder and made the bell ring, which was one mile away from the place of demonstration. “Wireless” communication era was born in Calcutta from that Moment. This demonstration had been reported in an international Magazine called “Electrician” during that time. Important British dignitaries also watched the JC Bose demonstrations at Calcutta.
On Semptember 21st 1896, JC Bose delivered a lecture com demonstration at Royal Institute, London on wireless transmission. Eminent scientists including Marconi were present in that session.
JC Bose, demonstrated before the scientific community at London, his instruments, mainly the instrument called Co-Herer by using Mercury as the conducting material and a telephone. Bose gave number of demonstrations in Europe and America regarding wireless technology.
In the year 1901, Marconi had patented the technology, used and demonstrated by JC Bose and became its inventor and owner. Many scientists had raised objections to this and asked Marconi about its important part called “Co-herer”. He told the world community that a friend called L.Solar gave it.
It seems that JC Bose had written a letter to Ravindranath Tagore, on May 17th 1901 from London. He wrote that a millionaire, who was the owner of a Telegraph company, approached him and begged him to sell the “wireless technology” for 50% profit rights, by patenting the technology. At that instance, JC Bose was about to give a lecture in London and denied the proposal.
If JC Bose had patented the technology, he would have become the source of inspiration to many young Indian scientists of that time. And Indians would have patented many of subsequent inventions that are mostly claimed and patented as Western inventions.
45. Textile technology of India
Since time immemorial, Indians had the knowledge of growing cotton, weaving it into clothes and tailoring them into dress material.
Greek Historian “Herodatus”, (400 BC), describing India’s greatness, had said that in India there are plants that produce the sheep’s wool. (Referring to cotton plant).
During the Gupta’s reign (200 BC), Indians were exporting cotton to China, Greece, Egypt, Rome and Arabian countries with an expensive price tag.
If a commoner in India wore a cotton cloth, the richest of the western countries wore the same Indian cotton cloth as a luxury item.
Cotton is one of the major attractions that made Europeans throng to India.
Vedas mention about the cotton weaving and cotton growing. Vedas refer to a seer called “Grusthayudha”, who had grown cotton plants and made the cotton thread from them. The seer had obtained 10 measures of cotton from that plant.
Vedic terminology describes raw thread as “Tantu” and remnant cotton as Othu”
From the Vedic beginning, Indian cotton story had come a long way, as Indians became experts in cotton growing and achieved the height of excellence in textile technology.
Indians had the skill of weaving a wrapper thin cloth that could be packed in a small matchbox sized golden box. A French traveler called Tavernier (17th century) had recorded the above fact in his writings.
Best-woven cotton cloth was tested at Dacca (now in Bangladesh), by piercing that cloth through a diamond ring and cloth would go through that small hole smoothly.
Indians offer new clothes in their worship to Gods and Goddesses. Indian deities are often decorated with splendid Indian fabrics. Culturally India’s rich art is inter-woven with Indian textiles and Indian lifestyle.
American Historian Will Durant says in his famous book “The Story of civilization or oriental heritage: “Textiles were woven with an artistry never since excelled; from the days of Caesar to our own the fabrics of India have been prized by all the world. From homespun khaddar to complex brocades flaming with gold, from picturesque pyjamas to the invisibly-seamed shawls of Kashmir, every garment woven in India has a beauty that comes only of a very ancient, and now almost instinctive art.” (Source: Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage – By Will Durant MJF Books. 1935 P. 585).
Indian handwoven clothes or Indian dyed handlooms are called chiniz. Natural Coloured Dyes, Colour Mix, Cloth’s texture, the artistic expression on the cloth, all remain as mystery and puzzle to the Europeans even today.
A famous historian “Andre Dubus” had said, “at the beginning of 17th century India was a very big commercial centre for textile trade”.
Ahmedabad and Surat were the biggest textile centers of medieval India. From costliest fabric to cheapest cloth, from silk to cotton every variety of cloth was available in these textile centres of India.
During the sixteenth century for the first time in world, dyed cotton fabrics were exported. These dyed fabrics had created huge demand in European markets. The craze towards Indian clothes was very high among European women. They had even resisted the ban imposed by various European Governemnts on Indian textiles.
In the year 1658, Hollanders attempted to make dyed clothes imitating Indian dyes. These fabrics resulted in unnatural colours and unbearable smell; and so they remained as unwearable grotesque. It took seventy years for them to attain a level of refinement in dyeing technology.
In certain European libraries, we find many manuscripts of letters written between 1742 & 1747. These letters speak about the greatness of Indian textile talents. (Ref: Decolonizing History, technology and culture in India, China and the west from 1492 to present day – Clande Alvares p55-67)
Till 1850, India remained an undisputable queen in textile business. With the advent of Industrial revolution, British began producing the machine made cloth and simultaneously created many black laws against Indian hand made textiles.
Many of Indian weavers were thrown out of jobs. Many traders in Indian textiles became insolvent in their trade due to economic sanctions imposed by the British.
Inspite of hurdles created by the British laws and heavy competition from machine made textiles, Indian textiles created their own brand image and survived bad times.
Kashmir shawls, Benaras, Dharmavaram, Kanchi, Kalankari, Palampur, Dongri, Paisley and Bengal fabrics earned their own brand image throughout the world and re-established Indian textile’s supremacy.
Today, India has become the largest producer & exporter of textiles and dress material. The best, the cheapest and the costliest fabrics of the world are available only in India today.
The infinite cultural heritage of India had absorbed the Textile industry’s temporary setbacks during the period of lull, Now the wave of Indian textile talents has taken an upward surge in its eternal flow, gushing ahead with all vigour.
“India is the Land of religions, cradle of human race, birthplace of human speech, grandmother of legend, great grandmother of tradition.”
American Author (1835-1910)
“I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagaved-Gita. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Vedic Cultural Excellence
46. Vedas – The Creator’s Manual
“vedo’khilam dharma mulam” – Manu Smriti.
All the Dharmic laws are ever rooted in Vedas
Cosmic laws of nature, human laws of nature, animal laws of nature, and all the laws of nature, including man made laws are rooted in Vedas. The word Veda means knowledge. Etymological root “vith” of the word Veda means ‘to know’.
To create anything we require knowledge of making it; to create a pot, we should have the knowledge of making a pot; to cook food we require the knowledge of cooking; similary to create this cosmos, the knowledge that the creator had applied is Veda.
Human being is an intellectual being, who has freedom of will and action. Other living beings do not need any intellectual exhortations; animals do not require intellectual inputs and lectures; because they float with nature’s rhythm and cadence; Animal’s life is a sensual experience; where as, Human’s life alone is an attitudinal expression. The independent intellectual expression of human being requires certain guiding principles, which govern this creation. They are Vedas. So human actions are to be performed according to the guidance of Vedic precincts, then and then alone, Human excellence and human wellbeing manifest as the best possible expressions. Such is the importance of Vedic knowledge to human beings.
Indian culture is rooted in Vedas. Dharma Sastras, Puranas, Music, Literature, Sculpture, Dance etc, various branches of sciences, Mathematics, Ayurveda, Astronomy, Chemistry, Botany and all the oriental knowledge had evolved from Vedas.
Vedas are not any textbooks to teach knowledge. They are not even ethics that are usually taught by any religious texts. Sound is given prime importance in Vedas. For this reason, Vedas are called Shrutis. (That can only be heard or uttered)
Today, modern science considers this universe to be a big pack of energy. Energy is identified or recognized by its vibrations. Every vibration is accompanied by a sound. Conversely through sound, vibrations can be created. That sound repository is Veda. But Vedas are not the man made sounds. They exist in creation as cosmic vibrations. Vedas are called “Apaurusheyam” meaning that they are not created by man. They are hymns, which were perceived or seen by the seers of yore. Hence Vedic seers were called as “Mantra Drashtas”.
Through penance and austerity, the seers had controlled the senses and had perceived the truth that is beyond the grasp of senses. For the human wellbeing they had conveyed these truths known as Vedas.
The facts of the creation and life in it are called “Truth” (Satyam). Surya (the sun), Chandra (the moon), Pancha bhuthas (earth, water, fire, air and space) are all the parts of creation and are considered “Satyas” (Truths). “Ruthum” is the ultimate cause for these truths. “Ruthum” reveals the ultimate truth. “Ruthum” is the cause of all causes.
Branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of a tree are visible to us; then we perceive the thunk of the tree; but roots are far below them and are not visible to us. Because they are not visible to us, can we say that they do not exist? Similarly it is our foolishness to deny the truths that are the roots and seeds for the tree of creation.
Without roots there is no tree. Without the truths of Vedas, there is no creation. These truths that are being called as “Ruthum” are the roots. One has to get hold of these roots. If we can catch hold of them (the truths or roots) we will understand the relationship between the creation and the “Ruthum”.
The health & strength of a tree depends on its roots. So does the creation’s wellbeing or harmony depend upon the Vedas. To understand the creation, one has to understand the Vedas. We therefore have to nourish the minds with the water of Vedic wisdom, the “Ruthum”.
The state of mind that links the mind with Ruthum is “Rutambara Pragna”. The person who earns that or perceives that truth is a “Rishi”. That knowledge discovered & shared by him with us is Vedic knowledge. These seers had neither created anything afresh nor told us out of their vivid imagination. They visualized the facts with intuition and conveyed them to us for human wellbeing.
Vedas got mingled in the Indian blood since ages. Indians were cultured and refined by Vedas. Vedic culture became the culture of India. Vedas are not hidden in the books or confined to bookish learning. They have become the very life breath of Indian society. Indianness means Vedic culture; Indian society is a Vedic society;
Varied ethnic groups, varied customs, varied languages, varied lifestyles of Indians, have common Vedic background. Kingdoms, boundaries or politics can neither become the cause for it nor can influence it. Indians are rooted in Vedas. For ages, the Vedic culture is being protected by the Indian society and Indian seers by adhering to strict austerities of penance and self-discipline.
Learning Vedas means acquiring mastery over the fourteen branches of Vedic studies.
- Four Vedas- Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda & Atharva Veda
- Six Vedangas-Siksha, Vyakarana, Chandas, Niruktha, Jyotisya & Kalpa Sastras
- Four Upaangas: Mimamsa, Nyaya, Purana & Dharma Sastra
Rig Veda It contains various hymns about the deities for obtaining their grace. It contains the knowledge about Creation and celestial bodies. “Rukh” means vedic mantra. Ayurveda is being considered as an Upaveda of Rigveda.
Yajur Veda For the mantras of Rig Veda, it describes the methodology of performing yagnas and Karmic rites. The upa-veda is Dhanur Veda. (A) Shukla Yajur Veda: Mostly followed in North India. (B) Krishna Yajur Veda: Mostly followed in south India.
Sama Veda Samaveda is a collection of hymns or mantras with melody of music, rhythm, and precise swaras (musical pitch) in praise of deities. The seven notes of music (sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-da-ni) originated from samaveda. The Upaveda for Samaveda is Gandharva veda.
Atharva Veda Atharvaveda has the hymns, which protect us from evil forces, and also contains the knowledge about our health and various Technologies useful for day to today living. The upaveda for Atharva veda is Artha sastra.
Each of the four Vedas is divided into four parts
- Samhita Mantra part of worshipping the deities.
- Brahmanam Explains the mantras and karmic rites
- Arnyakam Talks about the philosophical meanings of mantras
- Upanishads Para vidya explains the intricacies in obtaining Liberation (Mokhsa) and knowledge of cosmic secrets.
Siksha Sastram It is like the nose to the Veda Purusha. It is the science of phonetics. It deals with ways and means of pronouncing a word. The pitch, the mode, the cadence, the timing, the strength, with which the words are to be uttered are discussed in Siksha sastram
Vyakaranam It is like the mouth of Veda purusha. The science of Grammar. Sanskrit is a structured language. Vedic nouns, adjectives and prepositions require accurate placement and pronunciation; hence the grammar rules. The most famous grammar rules of Sanskrit were written by Panini called “ashtadhyayi”. Patanjali had written a commentary on it called “Maha bhasyam”.
Chandras It is like the feet of Veda Purusha. It reveals prosody and meter of vedic verses. Precise number of letters, that, the vedic verse should contain etc are dealt in chandas sastra. Pingla’s work Chandas Sastra is the famous work in this branch of study.
Niruktham It is like the ear of the Veda purusha. It gives the etymology of vedic words. Meanings of Vedas are contextual and cryptic. They differ from the meanings of ordinary usage.
Jyotisya It is the eyes of the veda purusha. It reveals the time for performing the Vedic yagnas. It contains the Mathematical and Astronomical calculations. It is the science of light that co-relates the Planetary influences on the earthly events and individual.
Kalpa Sutras It is like the hands of veda pursha. It reveals to us how a Vedic Act has to be performed in the form of sutras. (Aphorisms). Kalpa Sutras are divided into two types 1. Gruhya Sutras 2. Srota Sutras. Srota Sutras deal with measurements, methods of constructing the vedic altars, platforms for perfoming sacrifices etc. the methods of performing yagnas etc. Sulbha sutras are a part of srota sutras. Sulbha sutras contain the knowledge of mathematics in general and geometry and trigonometry in particular.
Gruhya Sutras deal with various purification ceremonies that a householder has to perform like, Seemantham, Namakaranam, Annaprasana, Upanayanam. Vivaaham, Sashtipoorti, Dahana samskaram and sraadha Karmas.
Baudhayana, Apasthamba, Mannava, Maitrivaruna had written both Srota and Gruhya Sutras. Where as Katsyayana, Drahyayana and others had written Gruhya Sutras.
Veda Bhashyas: Accroding to Niruktha, it is sinful if a person utters Veda without knowing its meaning. The persons who perform the Vedic sacrifices are called Rithviks. They should be well versed in the meanings of Vedic performances.
Hence, there are many who had written commentaries on Vedic verses. Sri Madhvacharya had written commentary on 40 suktas of Rig-ved. Batta bhaskara had written commentary for Krishna Yajurveda. Mahidhara had written commentary for Shukla Yajurveda.
Sayanacarya had written commentaries for the four Vedas. They became very popular. Foreigners had this bhashya as authority and learned the Vedas. Swami Dayananda saraswati had also written commentaries on selected Vedic suktas.
Mimamsa Mimamsa had been divided into parts 1.
Purva Mimamsa : It contains karma kanda. It describes the purpose of the mantra & Yagnas; their importance, their performace and benefits. Jaimini sutras are an authoritative text of purva minamsa school of thought
Uttara mimamsa: It contains Upanishads, Brahmasutras, and the related commentaries. It is called Jnana kanda.
Nyaya Nyaya is the school of logic and reasoning. It builds the Chain of logic and brings out the rational perspectives of the vedic principles. It evolves a system of questioning and leads to final conclusions. It has two branches 1. Nyaya 2. Vaisheshika Nyaya Darshana was written by Gauthama. Vaisheshika darshana had been written by Kanaad. It also deals with many aspects of Physics, Chemistry and Cosmology.
Purana Puranam means past. Puranas teach us the Veda dharmas based on life incidents of people who lived in the past. Veda Vyasa had compiled eighteen puranas. Apart from puranas we have two famous epics called Itihasas, the factual history. They are 1. Ramayana 2. Mahabharata
Dharma sastras Dharma sastras are Smritis. They deal with the ethics and Human behavior for obtaining the liberation, which is the ultimate goal of human life. They reveal the qualifications of vedic performers and related aspects. They deal with the expected ethical behavior from a person for the over all human wellbeing. Important Smritis are Manu Smriti, Parasara Smriti, Yagnavalka Smriti Gautama Smriti and Yama Smriti.
For the past one thousand years, there were colossal attacks on Indian culture from various fronts. The attacks on Indian Culture can be classified into two major aspects
- Physical attacks 2. Intellectual attacks
Physically, Temples, the living symbols of Indian culture were looted, destroyed and idols were smashed. Our Libraries were ransacked, and books of knowledge were burnt.
Intellectually, they attacked the educational system, by introducing western thought and culture. They debased Vedas by writing improper commentaries of wrong interpretations. They started interpreting Veda without obtaining the minimum proficiency in Vedangas. The major blow came when they decided the time of eternal Vedas, which were never created by human being.
Vedas and human wellbeing:
The secular knowledge is also rooted in Vedas. Many branches of science and technology like Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Surgery, Matellurgy, Agriculture, Animal husbandary, Aeronautics, Warfare, Building Technology, and Literature were inherited from Vedas. (These aspects are being dicussed in the other parts of this text).
Let us dwell upon the aspects of human wellbeing mentioned in the Vedas; Vedas are replete with feelings of human wellbeing; Vedas have revealed to us how to look at the world with the Vedic eyes? “Mitrasya chakshusa samiksha mahay” let us see world with the eyes of friendliness” “Mitrasya” means with a feeling of friendliness; The above Vedic verse reveals the kind of approach that we should have towards the world; Vedas contain many such sublime thoughts of Human wellbeing; Let us See the world with friendly eyes, not with a feeling of hate; Your world of creation depends upon your mind’s vision; As is your vision, so is your creation; If you see the world with friendly eyes, world becomes friendly to you; When you initiate a conversation with others, you see a friend in him and if you talk to him in a Positive way, then there are chances of even the cruelest person becoming a friend.
Let us live together; Sam-gacchatwam (let us travel together): Sam-vadatwam (let us speak with one voice); similarly let us all have one mind; let us eat together; let us live together;
samani va akutih samana hrdayani vah
samana mastu vo mano yatha vah susahasati (Atharva veda 6.64.4)
These feelings express the feeling of unity and oneness in every aspect of life; when Vedas are replete with such exhortations; what more can be said about human wellbeing; The primary objective and wish of the Vedas is that all should live together; share together and evolve; Vedas never accept the grabbing mindset of an individual. The whole world is the manifestation of God. Therefore, a friendly relationship should exist from individual to the world and from the world to the individual for mutual prosperity. This is the Vedic perspective about society’s growth and development.
In Vedas one can find the inter-human relationship very clearly depicted; these revelations pertain to a period of immomerial time. See the expansiveness and vision of these eternal Vedas; According to historians, normally it takes many thousands of years for a civilization to evolve. The pristine and refined Vedic thoughts are surely not man-made aphorisms but existed since the advent of creation and is the very basis of it.
47. Great bluff of Aryan Invasion Theory
Our schoolbooks are stuffing our minds from our childhood with many distorted facts. One such great bluff is Aryan Invasion theory, the brainchild of our imperial invaders, the British. It is Sixty years since they left us free, yet we carry those sham & concocted versions with us, more in our history books and stuff our future Indians with slavish mindsets.
Let us try to understand, what this theory is all about; how it originated, how it is a fake story of malice and falsehood, evolved with an intention of “Divide India to rule India”
Racially, the Aryans had been projected as the white coloured race, migrated from middle Asia, or from Black Sea into India on horsebacks and had driven out the local Dravidians into South India and established superior culture and civilization in Northern part of India. There are many allied stories that are added to flavor the main fictitious theory.
This theory had done great harm to Indians. It ripped apart Indians into Aryan and Dravidian. North Indians were projected as Aryans. South Indians were branded as Dravidians. Further the upper classes (Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas) of India were depicted as Aryans in orgin. The Sudras were termed Dravidian in origin.
This theory had not only torched the Indian minds, but also influenced the German dictator Adolf Hitler with Aryan superiority complex, that had resulted in Second World War, the greatest human tragedy of the modern times.
Aryan race story is a creation of the British. Let us analyze this theory from different perceptive to understand the malicious intentions of the people who concocted it
- Vedas do not mention anywhere that Aryans migrated from any far-off Lands.
- According to the Vedic meaning, the word “Arya” is the qualitative pronunciation uttered with respect to denote the exemplary behavior of a person. The word was never used in Vedas to signify a racial meaning. The word Arya means “noble”, “cultured”, “revered” etc.
- The word- “dasyu” means the person who has no control on oneself, or one who is under the influence of senses. It was used to describe the character of a person. The word was never used in the racial or ethnic context in the entire gamut of Vedas.
- Arya Varta and Dravida Pradesha are the locations in Inida. Vedas, Puranas and other literatures of India describe them so.
- The Aryan invasion Theory’s birthday seems to be April 10th, 1866, at a secret meeting held in England by Royal Asiatic society.
This was “to induct the theory of the Aryan invasion of India, so that no Indian may say that English are foreigners…India was ruled all along by outsiders and so the country must remain a slave under the benign Christian rule.” (Ref: Proof of Vedic Culture’s Global Existence – By Stephen Knapp p. 39).
- Two European intellectuals had widely popularized the word “Arya”. They were Sir William Jones and Prof. Maxmuller.
Sir William Jones (1746-1794) was the honorable Judge of Calcutta’s Supreme Court. He was the first person who had found the connectivity between Sanskrit and other European languages. Maxmuller, the German Linguist on the other hand had translated the Vedas into English.
- In the year 1784, William Jones wrote a letter to the then Governor General Warren hastings, how to spread “our pure faith” as “no mission from the Church of Rome will ever be able to convert the Hindus.” He wrote about translating Bible into Sanskrit and “then quietly to disperse the work among the well-educated natives.”
(Source: West languages derived from Indus script – by Bhikhu Patel)
- Muller did his scholarly work with certain ulterior motives. When writing to his wife in 1866 about his translation of the Rigveda, he observed: “This edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent… the fate of India, and on the growth of millions of souls in that country. It is the root of their religion, and to show them what the root is, I feel sure, the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last 3000 years.”
(Source: The Life and Letters of the Rt. Hon. Fredrich Max Muller, edited by his wife. Longmans, London, 1902, Volume I, P. 328)
- In 1946, Dr. Ambedkar wrote a book titled, “Who were Sudras?” In it, he pooh-poohs the Aryan invasion myth. He says “That the theory of the Aryan race set up by the Western writers fails to the ground at every point, goes without saying… Anyone who comes to scrutinize the theory will find that it suffers from a ‘double infection.’ In the first place, the theory is based on nothing but pleasing assumptions and the inferences based on such assumptions. In the second place, the theory is a perversion of scientific investigation. It is not allowed to evolve out of facts. On the contrary the theory is preconceived and facts are selected to prove it”. He had completely devoted one chapter, “Sudras Vs Aryans” and discussed at leangth the malafide intentions of propunders of this theory.
- Swami Dayananda (1824-1883) was perhaps the first Indian to dispute the Aryan myth: “In none of the Sanskrit history textbooks” he wrote, “has it been stated that the Aryans came from Iran, vanquished the aborigines… and became rulers”. He stressed that the word Arya referred in the Veda to a moral or inner quality, not to any race or people, and insisted that India was Aryavarta, the home of the Aryans- a word he used purely in its original sense of “Vedic Indians.”
- Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) was the one who was quick to see through the gaps in the Aryan theory. In a lecture in the U.S.A., he remarked scornfully: “And what your European Pandits say about the Aryans swooping down from some foreign lands santching away the land of aborigines and settling in India by exterminating them, is pure nonsense, foolish talk. Strange, that our Indian scholars too say “Amen” to them”.
- In his Secret of the Veda, Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950) called on Indians not to be “haunted by the unfortunate misconstruction of the Veda which European scholarship has imposed on the modern mind”. “The indications in the Veda on which this theory of a recent Aryan invasion is built, are very scanty in quantity and uncertain in their significance. There is no actual mention of such an invasion…”
- Bluff of the great Aryan theory got mitigated with excavations of Indus valley civilizations at Mohen-jo-daro & Harappan sites in the year 1920. Later Archeological evidences like Lothal port and other Harrapan sites had substantiated the existence of superior civilization in India, ages ago. It appears to be ridiculous to fabricate a story of Aryans coming on horsebacks to conquer this highly advanced cities and civilizations of India.
- The Vedas mention about a mighty river called the Saraswati, where Indian communities flourished on its riverbanks. In the early 1980’s, proponents of the Aryan Invasion Theory got a terrible shock. The Satellite photos had identified the dry bed of an enormous river and its paleio channel. All these days, Western scholalrs were projecting River Saraswati, as a Vedic myth, to falsely fabricate the Aryan invasion myth.
- Voltaire Francois Marie Arouet (1694-1774) France’s greatest writer and philosopher wrote: “I am convinced that everything has come down to us from the banks of the Ganges, – Astronomy, Astrology, Metapsychosis, etc.” …”It is very important to note that some 2,500 years ago at the least Pythagoras went from Samos to the Ganges to learn geometry…But he would certainly not have undertaken such a strange journey had the reputation of the Brahmins’ science not been long established in Europe…”
- In recent years many intellectuals had demolished the intellectual edifice of Aryan theories. To detoxify ourselves from the noxious Eurocentric notions injected by the “standard” history textbooks on India’s cultural heritage, we have to read the following books
- In search of the cradle of civilization by Georg Feuesrstein, Subhash kak, & David Frawley
- The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India by David Frawley
- The Politics of History: Aryan Invasion Theory and the Subversion of Scholarship. By Navaratna Rajaram
- Return of the Aryans by Bhagwan S. Gidwan
- The Invasion, that never was by Michel Danino.
48. Saraswati River & once Glorious Civilisation
“ambitame naditame devitame saraswati” (Rigveda 2.41.16)
Oh! Mother Saraswati,
You are the best among Mothers,
You are the best among Rivers,
You are the best among Gods & Goddesses.
“saraswati saptati sindhumata” (Rigveda 7.36.6)
Holy River Saraswati had been referred to in Rigveda, more than 72 times.
Today, we don’t find this river flowing anywhere in India. Western scholars misinterpreted the above fact and concluded that the Saraswati River mentioned in Vedas is a myth. Thereby they have belittled Vedas as mere poetic emotions and figurative literature. Some of these scholars went to the extent of calling the River Sindhu, as the river Saraswati.
River Saraswati is not a small river. Vedas refer to it as a mighty river. It had cultural links with Indians. Great civilizations might have flourished along its riverbanks. To know about this river it, to know about India’s ancient life style, culture and glory and of course its history.
For decades, many patriotic Historians and scientists had made untiring efforts in
Identifying its palieo channel, its hinterland, its origin and the way it had become the underground river etc.
River Saraswati might have originated in the Himalayas and would have flown in the states of the Punjab, Singh, Rajasthan and Gujarat and might have merged into the sea at Rann of kutch…
To substantiate its presence as a river, one can consider the Vedic & Puranic references, Historic indications and modern research findings etc.
8,000 to 10,000 years ago, it was a mighty river. As mentioned in Rigveda it was one among the Sapta Sindhus. River Saraswati is not just one among the seven rivers, but the mother of all.
The seven singhus mentioned in Vedas are (1) Saraswati (2) Satadu (Sutlej) (3) Vipasa (Beas) (4) Askini (Chinab) (5) Aeroshini (Rabi) (6) Vitastha (Jhelum) and (7) Sindhu (Indus). Among these seven rivers, Saraswati and Sindhu are the mighty rivers that flow from mountains to sea.
Saraswati River is often called as river of “saras” (river of pools). In the states of the Punjab, Sindh Rajasthan and Gujarat, we find its palieo channel & hinterland. Even today one can trace many lakes, as evidence to its flow. Normally, in lakes no deposits of alluvial soil are found. The alluvial soil is found only at the riverbeds. But the lakes of these states, where its palieo channel had been identified, we find the alluvial soil deposits. This indicates that the River Saraswati still exists as under ground current.
Institutions like Rajasthan Water Works Department, Baba Atomic Research Institute (BARC), Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmebadbad (ISRO’s sister organization) have identified the River Gaggar as part of river Saraswati in the year 1983.
This Gaggar River flows into Thar Desert and becomes the underground current. The objective of these institutions is to tap and utilize the under water current of this river for the benefit of the people living in these desert areas.
The pictures taken from space through the “Land set” satellites had clearly exposed the palieo channel of river Saraswati. Originating from Himalayas, flowing westwards and northwest and then becoming river Gaggar, it merges with the sea at Rann of Kutch in Gujarat.
These pictures clearly indicate that the river Sindhu and river Saraswati as two independent rivers.
Excavations along the river flow had unearthed the many ruins to indicate the existence of residential settlements and urban life along its valleys in the states of UP, Rajasthan and the Punjab. These ruins had many similarities with Harrappan sites. Many of excavations indicate them to Pre-Harappan in their existence.
We find many a reference in the Mahabharata about the river Saraswati. Balarama, the brother of Krishna, goes on pilgrimage to the various pilgrim centres located along the banks of Saraswati (Mahabharata 3-80-118, 9-36-1, 3-130-4) In Anushasaka Parva of Mahabharata, we find that Kurukeshtra, (the battlefield) was located to South of River Saraswati. (Ref: MB-AP-134-15)
In Manusmrit, we find a reference to the river Saraswati. The region west of Saraswati had been described as “Arya varta” and the region east of Saraswati had been described as “Brahma varta”. (Ref: MS-11-17-18) Skanda Purana and other Puranas do have reference to the river Saraswati.
Knowledge of the River Saraswati is very essential to every Indian, as it links us with our ancestral roots. As it bonds us to the Vedic culture, the cradle of human civilization.
River Saraswati eternally flows within the minds of Indians, as an underground current of talents and skills. We bow to the stream of knowledge and learning that ever drenches the Indian soil to vivify the Indian minds.
49. Under Water City of Lord Krishna
Dwaraka, the once fabulous city built and dwelt in by Lord Krishna exists today. It is visible to us now, as underwater ruins.
In the Mahabharata, Musala-parva, Arjuna describes the drowning of the city in the following words.
“Gushing waves of the sea, suddenly stormed Dwaraka. Water flashed into the streets, dashing beautiful buildings. Every mighly mansion of that wonderful city was razed to ground like a falling pack of cards, the devastation was total, I have seen with my eyes, the complete submergence of everything into the sea; Today Dwaraka exists only in name; as a sweet memory in our minds”
After Krishna’s departure to the abode of Vaikuntha, the city perished. Then the domain of Kali-yuga began”. Vishnu Purana says so.
Lord Krishna and his clan lived here. This city was built on the seashore, on the banks of the river Gomati. It was a well-planned city of various sectors consisting of residential, commercial, professional workshops and other utility establishments.
The roads were very broad and they criss-crossed the city in a grid design. The whole of the city was well fortified. There was a big and centrally located community auditorium called “sudharma”. Dwaraka had a wonderfully built fort.
Dwaraka is one among the four Divya Dhamas, a devot Hindu should visit. The remaining three are Puri, Badrinath and Rameswaram. Today, one can locate Dwaraka, the city of Krishna in the state of Gujarat, on the banks of Gomati river, on its confluence with sea.
Undersea excavations conducted between the years 1983 and 1990 had brought forth various hidden facts into light. The Archeologists had discovered an under water city hidden deep in the sea, from a distance of half a kilometer from the sea.
The underwater ruins had revealed that the city was divided into six sectors. The boundary wall seems to be well fortified and was built on the reclaimed land from the sea.
According to the excavations conducted so far, on the northern side of the present temple town Dwaraka, there exists under water ruins called “Bet dwaraka” (otherwise called sokodhara); On the southern side ruins are found upto a place called “Okamadi” on the Eastern side the extensive ruins are visible at “Bindra”. Archeologists and historians had found many similarities between the present ruins of the underwater city and the Dwaraka city described in our epics;
The reclaimed archeological artifacts from the sea were subjected to carbon dating. Most of the remnants were dated to be 10,000 years of age. Prof. S.R. Rao, undersea water archeologist, is the man behind these greatest excavations; after his intensive research and untiring efforts, he had written a book called, “The Lost city of Dwaraka”; in his book, Prof S.R. Rao discussed many unknown facts about Lord Krishna’s city.
For the past two decades, the Gujarat, Government is making its best efforts to establish the underwater museum. This will enable the visitors to go into the sea and to get the glimpse of the then city of Lord Krishna, who walked on this great land ages ago.
50. Land marks of Rama’s bridges on Indian Ocean
“There was neither Rama nor the Ramayana. It was all a myth and imagination”, some people say so. What can we say to them? How can we convince them otherwise? The so-called rationalists do not believe what Ramayana says; At least would they believe the revelations of modern technology?
The NASA (American space research organization) had released a few satellite photographs of a huge man made construction (Bridge of 48kms in length) that connected India and Srilanka that is lying submerged on the surface of Indian Ocean.
As per Hindusthan Times report dated 10.10.2002 (PTI Washington, quoting NASA’s findings) “the bridge’s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is a man made structure”.
This bridge extends from Dhanuskoti of Rameswaram to Thalimannar in SriLanka. The gulf between these two places is called “Palk strait”.
The Ramayana says that Lord Rama constructed the bridge with the help of Vanaras (monkey brigade) to cross the ocean to reach Lanka. Viswakarma’s son Nala (Divine Architect) had guided the construction of the bridge.
According to Archeological findings and calculations, the age of this man made structure had been estimated to be of seventeen lakh and fifty thousand years. Does this findings, match with the time scale mentioned for Treta Yuga of Ramayana?
According to Dr Badrinarayan, Former Director of Geological Survey of India and Sri Kalayana Raman, reputed Historian and archeologist, Ram sethu is a “man made structure”.
Researchers from the Bharthidasan University, Trichy, had estimated this bridge to be of 3500 years old. Subsequently even NASA distanced from its claim of declaring it as man made structure (as revealed by Chairman of Tuticorin Port Trust in the press conference dated 28th July 2007)
Varied calculations, estimations, arguments, counter arguments, controversies do happen always, when we deal with a “Timeless Truth”. The Ultimate Truth is that, there exists a man made structure (though disputed recently) between Rameswaram and srilanka as mentioned in Ramayana. Millions of Indians believe that Rama constructed it.
Today, the Indian government terming this bridge as obstruction for the ships to reach the other side of the coast and is planning to demolish part of the bridge for constructing a shipping channel. The name of the project is called Sethusamudram project.
Indians should feel proud about this ancient Engineering feat. It is a subject matter of eternal Indian talents. The piling and bonding the huge boulders across the ocean is not an ordinary fact. Instead of assimilating the technology adopted by the ancient genius, our rulers are trying todemolish the existing symbol of Indian culture and Indian talents.
Our rules should understand that this issue pertains to the Indian psyche and Indian sentiments. Secular governments should value them. Ram is not just God, but the beloved king of Indian History.
Let us hope that our rulers protect this unique heritage monument, which represents the Indian ethos, Indian knowledge, Indian talents, Indian faith, and Indian culture.
51. World’s Oldest Port-Lothal
The oldest port city has been found in India. The port city is called Lothal Port. Today it is situated in Dolka Taluka of Ahemdabad district in Gujarat state.
During the year 1954, the ruins of this port city were excavated. The archeological studies reveal that this ancient port city was once a part and parcel of Indus valley civilization, which flourished 4500 years ago. (Around 2400 BC).
This port city flourished with the trade and commerce. From here, beads, jewellery, textiles and mineral ores were exported.
Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. The dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order.
It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well. The warehouse was built close to the acropolis on a 3.5-metre-high(10.5ft) podium of mud bricks. The rulers could thus supervise the activity on the dock and warehouse simultaneously. Facilitating the movement of cargo was a mud-brick wharf, 220 metres (720ft) long, built on the Western arm of the dock, with a ramp leading to the warehouse. There was an important public building opposite to the warehouse whose superstructure has completely hisappeared.
Lothal was a planned city with radial streets and divided sectors. Householders possessed a sump, or collection chamber to deposit solid waste in order to prevent the clogging of city drains. Drains, manholes and cesspools kept the city astonishingly clean, and deposited the waste in the river, which was washed out during high tide.
Many artifacts, tools, terracotta materials and metallic utensils, that were found during excavations reveal the advanced civilization and culture of Lothal.
Instruments like shell compass and various weights and measures only confirm the scientific knowledge of this maritime city.
Ruins stand today to testify the exsistence of a major port, where ships were not just docked, but were repaired and fabricated.
The Lothal, a book written by S.R. Rao, published by archeological survey of India, 1985 gives a detailed account of Lothal’s glory and greatness.
52. The Eighteen Puranas
The Puranas were written to popularize the doctrine of the Vedas. They contain the essence of the Vedas. The aim of the Puranas is to impress on the minds of the masses the teachings of the Vedas and to generate in them devotion of God, through concrete examples, myths, stories, legends, lives of saints, kings and grat men, allegories and chronicles of great historical events. The sages made use of these things to illustrate the eternal principles of religion. The Puranas were meant not for the scholars, but for the ordinary people who could not understand high philosophy and who could not study the Vedas.
All the Puranas belong to the class of Subrit-Samhitas, or the Friendly Treatises, while the Vedas are called the Prabhu-Samhitas or the Commanding Treatises with great authority.
The Puranas are of the same class as the Itihasas (the Ramayana, Mahabharata, etc.). They have five characteristics (Pancha Lakshana), viz., history, cosmology (with various symbolical illustrations of philosophical principles), secondary creation, genealogy of kings, and of Manvantaras (the period of Manu’s rule consisting of 72 celestial Yugas.
Veda Vyasa is the compiler of the Puranas, which are eighteen in number and are very popular.
- Vishnu Purana – 23,000 verses
Told by sage Parasara to his disciple; It contains stories of various devotees of Lord Vishnu. A description of varnasrama; the six Angas of the Veda; a description of the age of Kali; description of Sveta Varaha Kalpa, Vishnu dharmotara. It also preaches the oneness of Siva and Vishnu.
- Naradiya Purana – 25,000 verses
Told by sage Narada to the four sons of Brahma. This Purana contains a synopsis of everything; it describes Jagannatha Puri, Dwaraka, Badrinath, etc.
- Padma Purana – 55,000 verses
It preaches dharmas, and rituals. It also contains the glory of Srimad-Bhagavatam the stories of Rama, Jagannatha, Matsya, Ekadasi, Bhrgu, etc.
- Garuda Purana – 19,000 verses
Told by Lord Vishnu to his beloved bird Garuda, contains mainly about matters pertaining to birth, death, after death, reincarnation, merits and evil effects, heaven and hell etc.
- Varaha Purana – 24,000 verses
Describes different vratas (ritual performances) Lord Vishnu’s glories etc.
- Bhagavata Purana – 18,000 verses
The most popular among all the eighteen puranas; It contains glories and stories of Lord Vishnu and his incarnation as lord Krishna. Vyasa reveals this purana to his son Suka and Suka in turn had told this to king Parikshit.
- Brahmanda Purana – 12,000 verses
It tells about various celestial regions; Indian geographical location (Bharata varsha); Most popular hymns about divine mother, Sri Lalita sahasra namam are described in it. It describes the vedangas and the Adi Kalpa.
- Brahmavaivarta Purana – 18,000 verses
It describes the creator, creation and the link between the two; it contains exhortations about human behavior and mostly about the hospitality to be provided to the guests. It contains the glories and pastimes of Radha and Krishna.
- Markandeya Purana – 9,000 verses
Preached by Markandeya maharshi, it contains glories of Siva and Vishnu and included in it is the very popular “Chandi Homa”.
- Bhavishya Purana – 14,500 verses
It was revealed by Lord Surya (Sun God) to Manu. It contains various dharmas to be adheared to by the fourfold caste. Mostly, it tells about the future happenings.
- Vamana Purana – 10,000 verses
Lord Narada told it to sage Pulastya. It contains the story of Lord Trivikrama. It explains the worship of Siva and Vishnu. It gives us the knowledge about earth and formation of seasons and its effects etc.
- Brahma Purana – 10,000 verses
It describes the benefits of protecting dharma (the righteousness), The kings are benefited by longevity, fame, heavenly abode and liberation, if they protect the Dharma.
- Matsya Purana – 14,000 verses
Revealed by Lord Vishnu in the form of Matsya (fish) to sage Manu; It describes the benefits of performing funeral rites, shraadha ceremonies to departed elders; Temple construction; The description about Vamana and Varaha Kalpas are also found in it.
- Kurma Purana – 17,000 verses
Revealed by Lord Vishnu during his Kurma Avatara (tortoise incarnation); It mentions about the holy places; Unity of Siva and Vishnu and their worship etc;
- Linga Purana – 10,000 verses
Various stories about Siva, Siva’s preachings; Glories of Siva; knowledge about earth, celestial regions, Astrology and Astronomy etc.
- Siva Purana – 24,000 verses
Told by Vayu deva. It contains knowledge about time; and Solar region, glories of Siva etc;
- Skanada Purana – 81,000 verses
Told by Kumara Swamy (Son of Siva). It contains various aspects of knowledge about celestial regions etc; dharmas; glories about Siva and Vishnu; the famous Satyanarayana ritual is available in this purana.
- Agni Purana – 15,400 verses
Revealed by Lord Agni (fire) to sage Vashishtha; It contains grammar, prosody, medical knowledge; Astronomy Astrology and Dharmas (Laws of Righteouness). It contains the description of Shaligrama.
53. Vedic Chandas & its Excellence
Indian Dharmic edifice stands on the Vedic foundation. Indian culture is eternally rooted in the Vedas.
Vedas are again based on the Hymns or mantras – vibrations of sound. Hence Vedas are called Shrutis. (That can only be heard or uttered). Vedic meanings change with the change in the way of mantra pronunciations. Hence utmost importance is to be given for chanting of Vedic mantras.
Mastery in six Vedaangas is very important while chanting the veda-mantras.
Vedic chandas is one among them. Vedic chandas deals with Vedic meter or prosody.
The letters in the Vedic mantras are systematically arranged. There is an order and harmony between the letters. Pingala’s Chandas Sutra is the authoritative text on Vedic chandas. It deals with Mathematical concepts also. The letters in Vedic mantras have mathematical significance.
The Sanskrit root “Chhad” means Happiness. The word chandas means that which gives happiness while uttering. Vedic utterance has a rhythm inbuilt in it. Our sages have assimilated the rhythm of Veda mantras and evolved the science of Chandas or prosody with strong Mathematical and logical foundation.
Rhythmic mix or combination of Laghus and Gurus gives systematic march of words. Hence Chandas is called the feet of Veda purusha.
When a letter or syllable is uttered within one “Matra” ’s time, then it is called “Laghu”. If it is uttered within two “Matra” ‘s time, it is called “Guru”.
A vedic mantra or stanza contains fixed number of “Padas” or lines, and each line contains fixed number of letters or syllables. The metre or “Chandas” depends upon the number of letters in each “pada” and the total number of “padas” in a “mantra”.
Normally each mantra has four Padas except Gayatri Chandas, which has only three padas; in each Pada the syllables may vary between 1 and 26. The Chandas of a hymn is determined, based on the number of syllables in a Pada.
- Anadhista Chandas: (Between one and five syallables): Ukta, Atyukta, Madhya, Prathista, Suprathista.
- Bruhat Chandas: (between six and twelve syallables):
- Gayatri (eight syallables in a pada and three padas in total)
- Anustubh (eight syallables in a pada and four padas in total)
- Brihati (nine syallable in a pada and four padas in total)
- Pankti (ten syallables in a pada and four padas in total)
- Tristubh (eleven syallables in a pada and four padas in total)
- Jagati (tweleve syallables in a pada and four padas in total)
- Ati Chandas (between thirteen to nineteen): Ati Jagati, Sakvari, Ati Sakvari, Atyasti, Druti, and Atidruti.
- Kriti chandas (between twenty to twentysix) Kriti, Prakruti, Akruti, Vikruti, Abhikriti, Utkruti.
Purshusukta in Rigveda reveals about the origin of chandas (10.90.9).
Gayatri with its three padas was considered to be the earliest among chandas, revealed or discovered by sage Yadhachanta.
Sage Valmiki had written the Ramayana in “Anustubh Chanda”s (Eight letteres of Four padas-toal 32 letters)
Pingala had introduced various techniques of maintaining the Vedic metre. If there is excess of one letter it is called “Bharik” if there is excess of two letters than the prescribed order it is called “swarat”. If there is shortage of one letter it is called “nibrath”. If there is shortage of two letters it is called “virat”.
Sages discovered Vedic mantras. From these mantras various types of chandas were identified and science of Chanda sastra evolved. These metrical forms had taken the form of various Sanskrit poetic works.
The poetic literature of various Indian languages was based on Vedic Chandas. Dance dramas, devotional songs, verses and all aspects of poetic literature had their roots in Vedic chandas.
54. Transport System During Vedic Times
Modern systems of transport, do find a mention in Vedic literature. They have been explained in clear terms. Logical conclusion of those descriptions drives us to the splendor of awe and wonder about the advanced technological knowledge possessed by the ancient Indians during Vedic times.
ye te panthano bahavo janayana rathasya vartmanasacca yatave
yaih sancarantyubhaye bhadrapapastam
panthanam jayemana mitramataskaram
yaccivam tena nomrda!! (Atharva Veda 12-1-47)
Roads of cities as mentioned in Vedas were segregated for three services,
For pedestrians, for bullock carts and vehicles (rathas) that run at different speeds;
In a verse of Yajur Veda (9-8), there is a description about the vehicle that uses a machine and runs with the jet speed.
In a mantra of Rig Veda (1-37-1) we find a mention about a sports car.
There were also mass transport systems prevailing at that time. In Atharva Veda verse (20-76-2) mentions about a sort of public transport system resembling bus or train.
trisokah rathah kutsenasatah nrrn avahat
In Rigveda (6-62-6) mantra, there is a description of vimanas. (Aircrafts).
The words like “Steam generating” vehicle, “Magnetic powered” vehicle, “Solar Energy fueled” vehicle mentioned in Vedas cannot be ignored. Please note that the modern inventions of machinery run vehicles are of recent origin (say only 200 years old).
55. Ancient Scientific Texts of India
The wisdom of Vedas had evolved into various systems of knowledge. Each system of knowledge is called a Sastra. The sages of yore systematically organized that knowledge into Grantha. (Texts). Even the fine arts of India were studied systematically and the science of arts had been developed in India. Hence we call knowledge about dance as Natya Sastra. The knowledge about sculpture is called Shilpa sastra. The knowledge of culinary skills is called Paka or Supa Sastra; knowledge of prosody is called Chanda Sastra etc.
Given below are a few Sanskrit texts, which reveal the knowledge about various applied sciences and arts;
Akshara-Laksha is the first encyclopedic Sastra, which goes by the name of Akshara-Laksha. The authorship of this science is attributed to Sage Valmiki. All kinds (325 to be exact) of Mathematics including modern Geometry, Algebra, Trigonometry, Physics or Applied Mathematics; Minerology, Hydels; the method of measuring Air, Heat and even Electricity; Geography etc., are said to have been discussed. This work comprehends earlier discoveries by Sage Kashyapa, Ganapati, Soorya, Brihaspati, Jaimini, Hanuman and others.
The science of sound is called Sabda Sastra, written by Kandika Rishi. It deals with sounds, echoes of moving and non-moving objects in creation. It also deals in five chapters with capturing or mechanically reproducing sounds, measuring their pitch, velocity, etc.
Sage Sakatayana is the author of Lakshana Sastra, or the science of determining the sex in animate and inanimate creation.
Babhru Muni has written about Kanya-Lakshana in which 32 marks are indicated for chastity of women etc.
Sage Garga has written on Sakuna Sastra, the determination of good and bad effects from the sounds of birds, words of human beings etc. (in other words, omens).
Shilpa Sastra is said to be written by Sage Kashyapa and it consists of 22 chapters. 307 varieties of Shilpas including 11 types of constructions like temples, palaces, halls etc. are detailed. Earlier writers on this subject are Vishwakarma, Maya, Maruthi, Chayapurasha, etc. whose thoughts have been incorporated in the above.
Supa-Sastra deals with the science of cooking. Person called Sukesa is the first author of this science. 108 varieties of preparations, from condiments and pickles to sweetmeats, cakes, puddings, and 3032 kinds of dishes meant for people living in different parts of the world are mentioned.
Sage Rishyasringa is credited with writing a comprehensive treatise on the science called Malinee Sastra which consists of flower arrangements, making garlands, bouquets, hair-do’s in various styles for women, writing love messages on flower petals to convey to beloveds in codes. This work consists of 16 chapters.
Lord Karttikeya wrote the science of Kala or Time. Its time divisions into definite periods, their classification into auspicious and inauspicious moments, and the deities that preside over each are dealt within this work.
Samudra Raja, or the Lord of the Ocean is the original author of Samudrika Sastra. He noted down the auspicious marks on the body of Lord Vishnu while the latter was resting on Adisesha in the ocean. Sages like Narada, Varaha and Mandavya and Lord Kartikeya later developed this science. Palmistry belongs to this sastra.
Ashwini Kumaras are credited with writing the science of Dhatuvada, which in 7 chapters treats with natural as well as artificial Dhatus or primary substances, their combinations and transmutations. Alchemy or converting copper into gold etc. is dealt in this work.
The science of poisons or Visha Sastra is said to have been exhaustively written about by Ashwini Kumaras. This deals with 32 kinds of poisons, their properties, their preparations, effects and antidotes.
Chitra Karma Sastra:
Bhima is credited with having composed the science of fine arts called Chitrakarma Sastra. It consists of 12 chapters and expounds nearly 200 kinds of drawings. There is a section in which students are taught to redraw the figure of a person after seeing a single hair or nail or a bone of that person.
Malla is said to have composed a comprehensive work on Malla Sastra, which deals with 82 kinds of gymnastics and sports necessary for preservation of health and athletic activities and 24 kinds of infantry warfare where hand-to-hand combat is involved. This work consists of 3 parts.
The reverved Valakhilyas are credited with writing the science on Parakaya Pravesha i.e. entering into one body from another body, and it teaches 32 kinds of Yogas and the eight-fold Siddhis (super-human capabilities), Anima, Mahima etc.
Agnivarma has written exhaustively on the science of horses, their auspicious marks, their physiology, breeding, training etc.
Similarly, Kumaraswamy has written exhaustively on Gaja Sastra (about elephants). He has given 16 methods to test various marks on the bodies of elephants.
Sage Vatsyayana has composed a work on Ratna Pariksha or testing of gems (precious stones). His analysis shows 24 characteristics of gems or precious stones, natural and artificial ones; their forms, weights etc are discussed and classified into categories. 32 methods of testing them for genuineness are also described.
Veerabahu, the lieutenant of Lord Subrahmanya, is the author of a work on Mahendrajala or the science of magic. It teaches how illusions, like walking on the water, riding in the air etc. are made.
Sage Agastya is credited with the composing of Shakti Tantra consisting of eight chapters in which Mulaprakriti, Maya etc., and 64 kinds of external Shaktis of bodies like those of the Sun, Moon and Air, Fire etc. are explained and their particular applications are also given. Atomic fission or nuclear science appears to form part of this science.
Sage Matanga is credited with composing a science called Soudamini Kala by which all phenomena could be attracted through shadows and even ideas. Also tought is the science of photographing interiors of mountains, earth etc.
Authorship of the science, which treats of the clouds, is attributed to Sage Atri. This work deals with 12 kinds of clouds, their characteristics, 12 kinds of rains, 64 kinds of lightnings, 32 varieties of thunderbolts etc.
In a work on Yantras by Bharadwaja, he explains about 339 types of vehicles useful for travelling on land, 783 kinds of boats and ships to be used on water and 101 varieties of airships, by use of the Mantra, Tantra, and artificial means and those used by semi-divine beings like Gandharvas etc., are also explained.
It is a science of engineering knowledge dealing with construction and planning of civil works; Architecture, Vaastu, town planning and other engineering design related subjects from part of this branch of knowledge.
Other technological treatise:
The four upavedas are (1) Ayurveda (2) Dhanur Veda (3) Gandharva Veda (4) Arthasastra
Ayurveda, as the name suggests, is the science of life and health, including medicine & surgery. It is considered to be upaveda for Rigveda; Even in Atharvaveda many mantras are attributed to health.
Brahma, the Ashvini Devatas, Dhanvantari, Indra, and Rishis like Bharadwaja, Atri, Agnivesha and others have composed treatises on the above subject. Subsequently Charaka collected this knowledge in a book of his, known as Charaka Samhita. Later, Sushruta followed him. Still later Vagbhatta composed a work on the subject. Besides medicine, surgery and even injections appear to have been known to them. Ayurveda treats the whole man under eight principal heads of treatment. Pharmacology too is incuded in this category. Sushruta has written a work on rejuvenation.
Dhanur Veda is considered to be an Upaveda to Yajurveda. The authorship of Dhanur Vdea or the science of archery is attributed to Sage Vishwamitra. This work, comprehending earlier works of Brahma and others, consists of four chapters, dealing with Diksha, Sangraha, Siddhanta, and Prayoga. Both the offensive and defensive modes are treated. Missiles like Chakra, the sword, and propelled forms of weapons, form part of it. Brahmastra, Vaishnavastra, Pashupatastra, Agneyastra are some of the missiles treated in this work. The deities to be invoked, the spells to be uttered, the description of weapons, mock warfare is all dealt with.
Gandharva Veda is considered to be an Upaveda to Samaveda. Gandharva Veda deals with the science of music and dance. It is said to have been composed by Sage Bharata comprehending earlier works by Nandikeshwara, Narada and Hanuman. Vocal and instrumental music and dances constitute this science. The object of this science appears to be spiritual i.e. to attain ecstatic moods in the worship of God.
Artha Sastra is considered tobe an Upaveda to Atharva Veda. Sage Vyasa is said to have composed a work on Artha Sastra consisting of three chapters, in which he teaches 82 ways of earning money, even while leading a righteous life.
Under this head, there are Nitisastra, Shilpasastra, the sixty-four Kalas and also other physical and metaphysical subjects. The famous Artha sastra texts are Kautilya’s Artha sastra and Sukraniti.
There are many ancient Indian scientific texts, which have been mentioned at other places in this book. There are many ancient Indian manuscripts, which are still lying undiscovered. There are many more manuscripts, which are preserved in various libraries of the world; knowledge of these texts is lying dormant and is yet to be made known to the world. There were many manuscripts of knowledge that were destroyed, during foreign invasions on India for the past one thousand years.
Modern Indian Talents
Naveena Bharatiya Pratibha
56. Indian Elephant Dancing its way to become an Economic Super Power
“Angus Maddison, a Cambridge historian, has estimated that in 1700, India and China, each had a share of world income of about 23%, about the same as Europe’s. By 1950, Europe’s had increased to around 30%, China’s had fallen to around 5%, and India’s had collapsed to just 3.8%. This decline is now beginning to be reversed. Rapid growth – witnessed first in China 25 years ago and more recently in India – suggests that both countries are on the way to reclaiming their rightful places in the world economy”
- Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime minister of India
(In an article published by Wall Street Journal – Jan 27, 2006-www.ibef.org)
According to the reports and analysis prepared by world’s reputed financial analysts Mckinsey & Goldman Sachs, India shall be a major economic force in the world by the years 2020-50.
India is emerging as a strong outfit in every sector of the world Economy; From Iron to IT, from Pharma to Pan masala; from entertainment to spirituality; from milk to mineral water; from food grains to packed foods; from knowledge workers to manual labour, from stock market investments to infrastructure investments, India is becoming an attractive destination for riches. Indian multinationals have emerged at last and are in buying spree of foreign companies. Indian Diaspora’ have become first-rate wealth creators everywhere, be it an American nation or an African nation.
Mighty Indian Elephant is on majestic march, dancing its way to become an economic super power. Let us watch its glamorous gait as it dances to economic tunes.
Indian National Income
- Gross Domestic product (2005-06) is US $812 billion (Rs. 32,50,932,000 Crores).
- GDP growth rate: (2006-07) is 9.4% (But for the past ten years India is achieving a growth rate of 7% plus, which is again a world record.
- Fourth largest economy in the world according to purchasing power parity estimations. (A FOUR TRILLION DOLLAR ECONOMY, as per IMF tabulation)
- Per capita income (2005-06) US$584 per annum (Rs. 26,280 per annum – Rs. 2190 per month)
- Foreign exchange reserves (2005-06) US$163 billon (Rs. 7,33,500 crores @ USD=Rs. 45/-). jAs on April 2007 the foreign exchange reserves 180 billion dollars.
Indian Rupee is in a upward surge of appreciation and as on 1.10.2007, USD = Rs. 39/-
- For the year 2005-06 India exported USD 103 billons; there is a 24% increase in the growth of exports.
- This is the fastest growth rate in the world and the same growth rate is being maintained by India for the past three years.
- Today we are exporting to 175 countries.
- Bombay stock exchange (BSE) is the second biggest stock exchange of the world.
- India has 23 stock exchanges in various cities
- More than 10,000 companies are quoted here
- Third Important Investment destination.
- BSE Index crossing 19,000 points is a world record.
- Largest banking system of the world with 70,000 branches
- Bank deposits is of 32% of GDP
Indian Middle Class
- Middle class growing stronger day by day
- World’s largest middle class
- 52 million high income-middle class families
- 500 million middle class consumers
- Average annual income varies from USD 1800 TO USD 20,900 (Rs 81000 to Rs. 940500)
- The average age of 54% of Indians is less than 25 years. So India is a very youthful country.
- In India on an average 30 lakh graduates pass out every year.
- Around five lakh engineers graduate every year
- Yet in India, the literacy rate is only 64%
- India has produced 209.3 million tons of food grains during the year 2005-06
- India stands today as a country of largest cultivable area.
- India stands first in production of rice & wheat. (In the year 2004-2005, rice 85 million tons; wheet 72 million tons;)
- In the year 2004-05 India has exported 1.1 million tons of Basmati rice. Other varieties of Rice 3.64 million tons were exported with export growth of 45%
- As per economic survey Feb.06 Buffers stocks of food grains – 23.6 million tons.
- Share of agriculture in GDP is 25% but 60% of people are depending on agriculture.
- Share of agricultural sector in exports is around 13%
- India is the largest producer of fruits in the world with production of 47.5 million tons.
- 10% of world’s fruit production is produced from India.
- India occupies second position in the export of fruits.
- India occupies the first position in the export of mango and banana fruits.
- India occupies second rank in vegetable production after China.
- During 2004, India could produce 90 million tons of vegetables.
- India occupies the first position in the production of milk.
- During 2003, India produced 88 million tons of milk.
- India stands 5th in rank regarding production of eggs.
- Eggs produced during 2003, is 40.4 million tons.
- India stands sixth in rank regarding the production of fish.
- Yearly production of 6.2 million tons.
- India occupies seventh position in meat production.
- Yearly production of six million tons.
- India occupies first position in production of commercial crops like sugarcane, cotton, jute etc.
- In the production of Coconut, pie, turmeric, spices, India occupies first position.
- World largest producer to Tobacco is India.
- India stands first in tea production and first in Tea consumption.
- 31% of world’s tea comes from Indian tea estates.
- Indian tea turnover is estimated at 2.2 billion dollars.
- After independence India has achieved a growth rate of 25%.
- Indian tea is considered to be of superior variety.
- Among them Darjeeling, Assam, Niligiri tea varieties are famous.
- Two crore of Indian population earn their livelihood from Tea industry.
During the year 2005-2006 Indian industry has achieved 8% growth rate.
- India stands first in the production of motorcycles
- India, occupies second position in the production of tractors and two wheelers.
- In the production of commercial vehicles India stands fifth in world ranking.
- In car sales India occupies the fourth position In 2004-2005, 9.61 lakhs were produced in India and 1.61 lakh cars had been exported.
- India occupies the first position in the manufacture of automobile spares.
- Indian pharma industry occupies the third position in terms of production.
- Thirteenth position in terms of value.
- 2005-2006 Indian pharma industry did trade of 10 billion dollars. (Rs. 45,000 crores) 33% above the constitute exports.
- India occupies a special position for producing low cost and high quality formulations and bulk drugs.
- 61 USFDA permitted Pharma manufacturing outlets are located in India.
- India is the only country to have so many USFDA permitted manufacturing outlets outside USA.
- Ranbaxy laboratory is considered to be one of the top ten Pharma companies of the world. It has manufacturing locations in seven countries.
- Recently Dr. Reddy Labs had purchased world’s fourth beggest pharma company.
- Indian research & development capability is considered to be one of the best in the world.
- Indian pharma companies are in a buying spree and are acquiring many foreign companies abroad.
- India is emerging focal point in Biotechnology trade & Industry. During 2005-06, India’s Biotechnology industry had recorded a sale of one billion US Dollars. (Rs. 4,500 crores)
- India is emerging as the third country after Australia and China in Biotechnology trade.
- From mere 22.8 million consumers in 1999, India today (April 07) has more than 212 million consumers. Among them cell phone consumers occupy the major part.
- India cell phone consumers are growing at the rate of sixty percent.
- Every month Indians are purchasing around 50 lakh cell phones.
Electricity and other basic Infrastructure
- In Power generation India occupies the fifth position in the world.
- On an average, India is producing 600 billion kilowatt hours during a year.
- Inspite of such a massive generation of electricity, thousands of Indian villages are without electricity.
- Indian roads extend to 3.32 billion kilometers, largest road network in world.
- World’s biggest railway network with 63000kms of rail route
- India occupies the second position in cement production with 151.2 million tons of cement production (March 2003)
- Indian textile industry occupies the first position in textile trade. During the year 2004-05, India had produced 45,378 million meters of textiles.
- In the segment of ready-made garments manufacture and exports, India occupies the first position. During the year 2004-05, India had made six billion trades.
- India is the only country that produces maximum number of films every year.
- No other country in the world has as many cinema halls as India has today.
- During the year 2004, Indian cinema had accounted for a trade of 4.5 billion dollars.
- Indaia stands first in cutting and polishing of diamonds.
- 90% of diamonds unearthed in the world come to India for cutting & polishing.
- Diamond trade occupies 29% share of export earnings, with exports being USD 13.7 billion dollars.
- Gold consumption in India is highest after USA.
Millionaires & Billionaires
- During the year 2006-2007, 36 billonaires from India had been listed in Forbes magazine annual top Billionaires list of the world. (Persons whose official net worth is above Rs. 4500 crores).
- Around 2 Crores of non-resident Indians have remitted USD 21 billion dollars to India (Rs. 94,500 crores).
- India’s external debt burden is below 15.8% of GDP.
- India has repaid most of its debt and waived the debts of several countries.
- India is becoming the number one IT HUB of the world.
- India earned 31.4 billion dollars (Rs 122460 crores) from software exports during the year 2006-07.
- India has earned USD 5.1 billion dollars from BPO services during the year 2004-2005 and achieved a growth rate of 33% in the year 2006-07.
- There is a growth of 25% to 30% every year in this industry.
- As on 31st march 2005, IT industry has 10,40,000 skilled manpower working for India’s property.
- Many “fortune five hundred” companies have development facilities in India.
- Today, India occupies the first position in BPO (Business process outsourcing) services.
The Moot Question
But India’s success story is not without a blot. With suicides of farmers, migration from villages to cities, illiteracy, lack of minimum health facilities, infrastructure deficiency, unabating terrorism, corruption etc, can we call ourselves a rich country? Can these be considered to be India’s economic growth indicators?
According to Human development index evolved by UNO, India occupies 127 the position among 180 nations of the world. This Index is prepared based on the factors of education, health, infrastructure, pollution and basic minimum facilities. Of course don’t be surprised to know that this human development index had been contributed by the Indian, who is a noble laureate & reputed economist, Sri Amartya Sen.
For the past one thousand years, India’s wealth had been plundered in many ways. But India ever remained an attractive destination of trade and commerce in every millennium of known history. Today, after gaining independence, its wealthy stroll is impressive and is on the verge of reaching it summit position that it occupied for ages. India today is occupying the first or second positions in many sectors of wealth-creation and is reemerging itself as an economic superpower. India was never a super power of arrogance and hegemony, but remained a sublime power of prosperity, peace and knowledge.
To rejenuvate India, all that we have to do is to clean the politics, eradicate corruption to a maximum level and to bring a balance between urban life style and rural life style. Then new and strong India is bound to emerge. Let us rebuild India with traditional values. Its heartbeat is in its culture. Let us fill India with wealth of high-end Indian values.
Then the future India shall retain its past glory and leadership of human excellence.
57. Modern Indian Scientists
Today India is a scientific super power. Nowhere in the world, in any of the countries, there are as many scientists as in India. Many Indian scientists who have settled abroad have contributed immensely to the modern scientific knowledge. But Indian scientists were not given due recognition for their contributions, courtesy – due to racial reasons.
But there are many scientists, whose achievements make us feel proud about Indian genius and dedication. Let us remember a few of them, who had laid strong foundations for Indian scientific edifice.
Prafulla Chandra Ray: (1861-1944)
He is Modern India’s Father of Chemistry. He was born in the year 1861, in today’s Bangladesh. In the year 1887, he became a graduate in Chemistry; returned from England to join as lecturer in the presidency college Calcutta.
His research work:
He had found a chemical compound called Mercurous Nitrate.
He had the easiest way of producing Nitrogen gas, which is popularly used in the field of agriculture.
He had authored a research book called “The History of Hindu Chemistry – Volume 1 & 2” between the years (1902-1909). The whole world came to know the greatness of ancient Indian Chemical & Metallurgical knowledge through his book.
In the year 1901, he had started the first Chemical factory of modern India at Calcutta called “The Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceutical works”.
He had encouraged many young entrepreneurs to start the chemical institutions and factories.
- Bengal Technical Institute (Now Jadhavpur university)
- Bengal Potteries
- Bengal Canning & Condiments
- Bengal Paper
- Bengal Enamel works
He had spent his earnings in helping poor students and in encouraging freedom movement. His greatest contribution is moulding his students into world-renowned scientists. Let us list our his student’s contributions.
- Jnana Gosh – the laws of dilution
- Dhar-invented Nitrogen fertilizers
- Sasir Kumar Misra – a world renowned scientist in radio communications & electronics
- Prof. Saha: Astronomical scientist
- Satyendra Bose: a famous scientist in Physics who worked with Einstein
One of the greaest scientists of India, Jagadish Chandra Bose was his colleague at Presidency College. Ray inspired Bose in many ways.
He had submitted 142 research papers in the field of Chemistry. They stand to be most valuable knowledge documents.
He participated in freedom movement very actively and ended his noble life in the year 1944.
JC Bose (1858-1937)
Plants respond to stimulus; they weep; they laugh; they become angry. This was proved scientifically by one of the greatest scientists of modern India Jagish Chandra Bose. He is a modern Rush. A scientist in Physics but did many inventions in the domain of Botany. He had for the first time in the modern science, removed the barriers between Physical sciences and Natural sciences.
He invented an instrument called Resonate recorder. It records the subtlest responses in the plant. He had published a book called plant physiological investigations. He had submitted 150 research papers throughout the world.
He had built his own equipments to undertake research. The most popular equipment invented by him is “Cresograph”. It magnifies a thing 10 million times. His equipment called “wave guide”, determines the structure of matter with the help of microwaves. It is most popularly used in the investigation of particle Physics.
Today we are living in a world of wireless communications. The technology was first invented by J.C. Bose. He had demonstrated it in world forums and seminars; but Marconi had patented the technology first and became the owner of its applications. The credit of this greatest achievement should go to J.C Bose not to Marconi.
P.C. Ray & J.C. Bose together worked in Presidency College and inspired many youngsters to become scientists.
Ramanujam remains to be the twentieth century’s Mathematical Genius. He is considered to be a phenomenon in modern mathematical world.
He was born a Kumbakonam in Tamilnadu and was working as a clerk in Madras Port Trust.
He had immense interest in Mathematics from his childhood days and was rather crazy about it. His teacher, his friend, his God, his playmate was Maths.
In the year 1911, he had written an article on “Bernoullis Number” in the magazine called “the journal of Indian Mathematical Society”.
In the year 1913 he had even obtainted research fellowship from the Madras University.
In the year 1917, Professor Hardy of Cambridge University had invited Ramanujam to England to undertake further research in Mathematics.
Ramanujam had postulated many Mathematical principles and theorms on the numbers and their combinations. Any number can be split inot various combinations of number using his formulae.
His ill health forced him to return to India. He was the first Indian to obtain the fellowship to Trinity College. He had been nominated to the membership of Royal Society of England.
Today, Tata foundation had brought out Ramanujam’s Mathematical theorems in the form of a book. This book is considered to be one of the important books in Mathematical domain.
During 1920, Professor Hardy came all the way to India, to visit the ailing Ramanujam. Professor Hardy casually told Ramanujam about the taxi number “1729”, in which he travelled. Ramanujam immediately responded by saying that 1729 is a peculiar number, which can be split into cubes of two numbers in two ways. (1729=13+123=93+103). Hardy was struck with wonder at Ramanujam’s Mathematical genius.
CV Raman (1888-1970)
India’s first Nobel Laureate in the field of Physics and the world famous scientist was C.V. Raman.
He was awarded Nobel Prize for his investigation “Raman effect”. Raman effect means, when a light ray travels through a transparent thing, it reveals the impact of diffusion of light in various ways. With the help of his investigation, the structures of more than 2000 chemical compounds were analyzed. The popularity of Raman effect grew many times with the invention of laser technology. He was the director of Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore for a period of ten years and shaped that organization to grow into world-calss scientific research institute. He was awarded “Bharata Ratna”, India’s highest civilian award.
M. Visweswaraiah (1861-1962)
The modern India’s foremost engineering genius. He hailded from a Telugu family settled in Kolar of Karnataka. (Today). His ancestors belong to a village called Mokshagundam in Andhra Pradesh. He had graduated from Madras University and completed his degree in engineering from Pune Science College.
He started his career by joining in public works department, Bombay and later became a member in Indian Water Commission. He had designed the wonderful water canal system for Deccan region. He had designed automatic water gates for regulating water in dams and reservoirs. In the year 1903, the water gates were first erected at khadakvasla near pune. Afterwards, the same kinds of water gates were erected at Gwalior and Mysore’s Krishnaraj sagar.
He was instrumental in desiging the water flowage system for the city of Hyderabad and saved that city from the disaster of floods. He had designed many buildings in Hyderabad. He played an important role in the construction of Vishakapatnam Port.
In the year 1908, he joined as Diwan at Mysore Royal State and had created wonderful architectural marvels in Bangalore and Mysore. He was instrumental in establishing Bangalore Engineering College in the year 1917.
British Government honored him with the title “Sir”. In the year 1955, Indian Government honored him with “Bharata Ratna”.
Yallapragada Subba Rao (1895-1948)
He is one of the Modern India’s greatest scientists in the field of medicine. After graduating from Harvard school of tropical medicine, he joined a research laboratory called “Ledralay”.
His contributions to the world of Medicine;
- Invention of “Hetrazon” drug used to cure elephantia-sis;
- Under the guidance of Subbarao, in the year 1945, Benjeman Duggar had invented, Tetracyclin antibiotic “Aeroyomycin”.
One of his colleagues named “Pesca”, had treacherously spoiled the research work of Subba Rao, because of which, it took many years to isolate the medical virus called “Nucleayo tidean” by other scientists.
As a mark of respect, medical community named a fungus in his name called “Subba Rao myces splendens”
In the year 1947, America awarded him the citizenship which he politely rejected and retained his Indian identity.
Homi baba (1909-1966)
Homi Baba is the Father of modern India’s atomic programme. Homi Baba was born in the year 1901 at Bombay; went to Cambridge, London for higher studies; returned to India and joined the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in the year 1945. In the year 1937, he had intensively researched on the subject cosmic radiation and found the particles called “Misons”. He became world famous with that Discovery.
He had been nominated to Atomic commission in the year 1948 and he had visualized the Indian atomic research programme. Kudos to his exemplarily vision, India achieved self-reliance within the shortest possible time and developed its Nuclear Technology.
During the year 1963, India established its first Nuclear Reactor; this is because of Baba’s leadership abilities. Within two years, India had surprised the world with the establishment of Plutonium plant.
In the year 1966, Homi Baba died in a plane crash. But to the world’s surprise, Indian Atomic programme was not deterred with the demise of Homi Baba. Our scientists walked the way Dr. Baba had envisaged for us and conducted its first Nuclear blasts in the year 1974. India became the sixth country in the world to conduct nuclear tests. Today we are using fast breeder technology to produce electricity, courtesy Homi Baba’s vision.
He had designed India’s three-phased nuclear programme. In India the fuel required for nuclear plants like “Uranium” are not available. So he visualized the alternative fuel as “Thorium” and designed the nuclear technology for India. This decision had pushed India into advanced research and advanced nuclear capability.
Modern India cannot forget the contributions of the architect of India’s nuclear programme.
Vikram Sarabhai (1919-1971)
Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai has become synonym for India’s success in Space Research Programme.
From small rockets to mighty rocket launching vehicles & space satellites, India’s journey into space was piloted and poneered by this visionary scientist. Be it a satellite or launch vehicle, India developed every bit of space technology, indigenously and achieved the heights of excellence. As world looks at India with awe & wonder, India is thrusting zealously into many ambitious space missions. Thanks to Vikra Sarabhai’s, efforts, resolve & vision for chiseling the ISRO – Indian Space Research Organization into a mighty institution.
Technology required for Space Research, Communications, Remote sensing data in the fields of Defence, environment etc were visualized by Vikram Sarabhai.
Though India launched its first satelliete in the year 1975, Vikram Sarabhai passed away in the year 1971. India continued the space research programme on the lines envisaged by Vikram Sarabhai and achieved success. His vision inspires our scientists eternally to carry the space mission successfully.
Sasir Kumar Mitra (1890-1963)
Sasir Kumar Mitra is responsible for establishing India’s Radio Transmitting Station in the year 1923. From 1927 India started transmiting radio programs. His efforts in Radio Physics & Electronics had earned him high reputation among the scientists of world community.
He had undertaken extensive studies about “Ionosphere”, the atmospheric layer. The waves transmitted by the radio station or the TV station reaches the ionosphere and gets reflected back to the earth. He had even established an institution called Radio Physics & Electronics. He had been awarded Padma Bhushan in the year 1962.
Meghanath Saha (1893-1956)
He is one of the great Astronomical scientists of India. His isonation formula is considered as the milestone achievement in the domain of Astro-Physics. It helps the Astronomers to calculate the temperature of the various celestial bodies like sun, planets and stars.
He had proposed a theory called thermal ionization of atoms. The principles of this theory help the astronomers to estimate the physical features of stars. He had published two great books. First one was, “a textbook of heat”. Even today this is considered to be the authoritative textbook for physical science students. Another book called “The principle of relativity”, he co-authored with another scientist Satyendranath Bose. This book is a classical Physics’ textbook. He started a magazine called Science and Culture. He was a Member of Parliament between the years 1952-1956.
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar:
He is instrumental in streamlining various scientific research organizations under one banner. He had brought effective coordination mechanisms between scientific research and industry. He was the first Chairman of the Universtiy Grants Commission. He had encouraged many young scientists to become entrepreneurs and advanture in the domain of research.
Today there are sub atomic particles named after him called “Bosons”. He is India’s greatest nuclear Physicist. He wrote an article called “Plank’s Law and Light Quantum Hypothesis”. He had sent this article to many scientists, yet nobody responded. In the year 1924, he had sent this article to Albert Einstein. The great scientist Einstein not only appreciated this article, but also personally translated this article into German and even said that this article is the milestone achievement in the field of research.
Photons and alpha particles emit a kind of radiation. The factors that reveal the behavior pattern of this radiation are called as “Bose statistics”. He and another scientist Meghanath Saha had translated Einstein papers on relativity into English. Bose even worked with Einstein on certain scientific projects.
Many Indian scientists of world repute like Satish Dawan, Abdul Kalam, Swaminathan, Hari Narayana and many others remain to us today as the legends of Modern Indian science era.
Indians are eternally talented. Modern or ancient, the name India is synonymous with knowledge both material and spiritual. The contribution of Indian scientists for world’s progress is like silent dew, subtle and sublime. Long live, the world’s largest scientific community, i.e. India. Long live, the Indian scientific communities, who are staying in various countries and are contributing immensely for scientific growth.